Grammar Resource Book - ( ..)

Past simple

Form

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I asked/*came

Did I ask/come?

I didnt ask/come

We asked/came

Did we ask/come?

We didnt ask/come

You asked/came

Did you ask/come?

You didnt ask/come

He, she it asked/came

Did he/she/it ask/come?

He/she/it didnt ask/come

They asked/came

Did I ask/come?

They didnt ask/come

*come (came) is an irregular verb. Past tense is not formed by adding -ed

Use

Finished action in the past, e.g. He arrived last night. They didnt go out of town.

Habitual actions in the past, e.g. She played the piano. Every morning we swam in the river.

N.B.! There are some other ways to express past actions: used to, would + Infinitive

Affirmative

They lived in the country.

The room was in darkness.

His job was all he knew.

The phone rang and startled her.

She drank coffee every morning.

He left the room without a word.

I had eggs and coffee for breakfast.

We bought that car new in 2004.

He got his first job when he was sixteen.

He spent all his spare money on books.

When his son grew up he became a businessman.

The Chinese invented paper and powder.

She banged the receiver down on the cradle

Suddenly he felt some move behind his back.

When I heard the news I hurried to his house.

He put the book on the table and left the room.

The army of Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812.

My friends moved to a new flat two weeks ago.

When the thunderstorm was over we went home.

After a long ride the car stopped at a huge building.

When the waiter came to our table we asked for a menu.

She went to bed early but a sudden phone ring woke her up.

Dinosaurs became extinct more than 60 million years ago.

She asked me a couple of questions and offered a good job.

He got up, put on his coat, took the hat and left the room in silence.

Last summer we went to Brighton and had a very good time there.

The weather was very cold and we stayed in the hotel the whole day.

When I looked out of the window, I noticed her immediately.

When I heard that terrible noise again I went down to the manager and made a complaint.

We spent the daytime on the beach, but in the evenings we usually went to a disco or a bar.

Interrogative

Did Jack phone you yesterday?

Did you paint the fence yourself?

Did you visit many places of interest in London?

Did you enjoy the week, which you spent on the seashore?

Didnt you go on any excursions during your holiday?

When did the delegation arrive?

What year did your son finish school?

Where did the end of the war find him?

What was the weather like? Was it very hot?

Why didnt you come to my office yesterday?

Negative

He didnt believe the news.

They didnt expect our arrival.

She walked away and never looked back.

My friends didnt enjoy the holidays abroad.

We invited her for dinner, but she didnt turn up.

He spoke so quietly that we didnt understand a single word.

I went to the library but didnt find the book, which I wanted.

After the war he didnt come back and didnt return to his job.

It became evident that they did not understand the problem.

He hit his elbow against the wall but at first didnt feel any pain.

General

They walked in silence, as it grew darker.

Where were you when your funeral took place?

The last thing she wanted was my attention.

Two pilots emerged and went inside the terminal.

She didn't care what her husband did at the office.

She expected no answer and got none.

I called you when I got home, but you weren't around.

She nodded politely and forgot each name as she heard it.

He ate a cold sandwich and watched the traffic below.

We went through more or less the same routine each week

Did he have the money or not, and if he didn't, who did?

He placed the cigar in his mouth, but did not light it.

She asked what difference that made, as if she didn't know.

The paper did not mention any name, but it referred to a client.

A perfect row of dark clouds marked the line where the water met the sky.

The first person she saw on a boat jumped into the water for a morning swim.

She took the elevator to the ninth floor where the hallway was dark and quiet.

The driver shut the trunk, lowered the car, tossed the jack into the ditch, and drove off.

He got out, paid the driver, and looked at the lights as the taxi drove in front of him and disappeared.

A moment later, they walked to the van, opened the doors, got inside, and drove it to a spot near their airplane.

The sea gently curled around island, and grew darker until it was indigo and then violet as it touched the horizon.

When I was a small boy, long before my father succumbed to alcohol and sent me away to a military school, I attended church occasionally with my mother.

The earliest settlers of Britain were the Iberians and the Celts.

The Anglo-Saxons had an iron-age culture: they utilized metals for tools and war weapons; they grew corn; they herded cattle.

When William the Conqueror became King of England in 1066, the Saxon era of English history ended and the Norman began.

When the Saxons invaded Britain Celtic Druidism still existed in the isolated regions of northern England.

After the death of William the Conqueror the nobles and churchmen gained power at the expense of the crown.

The political unity of England was in a large part due to the spiritual unity of the people under one God and one Pope.

She went straight forward until she crossed the river, and then turned into Fifth Avenue.

Constable Palk cleared his throat, looked important, and consulted his notebook

Miss Marple took the umbrella, dropped it, picked it up, and dropped her bag, which flew open.

Inspector Slack did not like Miss Marple, but the chief constable did not share that opinion.

I faced the risk when I undertook this business.

He then outlined his plans, which were simple enough.

He coughed again, took off his pince-nez, polished them carefully, and replaced them on his nose.

The woman closed the door in his face and left him on the step outside.

Dolphins are small whales who left the land somewhere in prehistory, and returned to the sea.

She travelled to migrant worker camps and photographed the workers who moved from farm to farm in search of work.

By 1492 most people did not believe the world was flat.

Did your government give you this order?

King Hammurabi ruled the ancient city of Babylon around the year 2,000 B.C.

After the 1980 revolution Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran, where he quickly became the countrys spiritual and political leader.

The new computer virus did not destroy data, but made copies of itself and multiplied so rapidly that it clogged machines and effectively shut them down within hours after it invaded them.

Roman legions under the Emperor Claudius conquered England in the mid-first century.

The Scottish people had their own royal family and fought the English for centuries.

In 1707, Scotland formally became part of the UK when the government of Scotland moved to Westminster, in London.

Henry Ford speeded up production when he introduced the use of the conveyor belt on the assembly line in 1913.

Even the bloody civil war did not provide equality for black Americans.

New concentrations of power arose in the late nineteenth century as very large corporations developed.

The injustice that preceded the creation of the Equal Pay Act was sexually discriminatory wage rates that existed in private industry.

Law

When did you become an attorney?

Did you tell me I was under arrest?

This paper ran the story of his murder.

Two large security guards stood in the hall.

I was never one of these lamebrains who thought cop work was glamorous.

She gave a brief statement to the police, to the effect that he came home after a baseball game, some silly argument erupted, they fought, he won.

The original draft of the American Constitution did not contain many protections of individual freedoms.

The United States Constitution created the organizational structure of the federal government and also set forth the structural relationship between the federal and state governments.

Large verdicts against Johns-Manville, an asbestos manufacturer, resulted in its bankruptcy.

In 1954 the district court in Kansas found that segregation in public education had a detrimental effect upon black children, but it denied relief on the ground that the school facilities were substantially equal.

The original draft of the American Constitution permitted slavery and the importation of slaves.

She was nude when the cops found her.

I spent four years as a lawyer in a big company.

Her investment in the law firm was in jeopardy.

When I opened the fridge, there was a dead guy in it.

The burglar rearmed the security system and made a hasty exit.

The criminals pumped some more drugs in him and left him in a ditch.

The police expert took photos of clothing, food, furniture, bookshelves, magazine racks.

This suspect had no money on him, and didn't even know what country he was in.

He studied hard, trained himself and quickly became the hottest trial lawyer in Tennessee.

The cops found a dead body in a truck behind a topless bar two years ago.

When Morgan finished the affidavit, he laid it on the table, and looked at some notes on a legal pad.

The police tracked him as he drove downtown to shop, and they photographed him from across the street as he left the pharmacy.

One trial lasted three weeks, and when it ended with a large verdict against the company my mother called a doctor and they hid my father in a hospital for a month.

The solicitors voice, when he spoke to his client, was dry but not unsympathetic.

The witnesses picked out the suspects from the identification video.

The witnesses made their statements in court and identified the killers.

The murder of a harmless woman sent shock waves through the neighbourhood community,

Scenes of crime officers examined the house and confirmed detectives suspicions on point of entry.

The Anglo-Saxon legal system was originally a system of tribal justice.

Where the Common Law was defective or injustice resulted from too strict adherence to precedent, Equity intervened as a corrective.

Both the Government and Opposition regarded the Royal Commission report as radical and spectacular.

The Criminal Justice Act, 1972 abolished the former property

qualification for jury service in England and Wales.

Some countries reported only robberies and thefts, which involved the property of citizens, since crimes against state property fell into a separate category.

The English Bill of Rights established the two houses of Parliament, guaranteed free elections, and placed parliamentary authority in statutory matters over that of the Sovereign.

By World War II 183 police departments some large, some very small existed throughout England and Wales.

The Local Government Act of 1972 reduced the number of police forces throughout England and Wales.

A series of scandals shook Scotland Yard in the 1970s, and the Royal Commission report in 1981 found evidence of consistent maltreatment of suspects.

Public criticism of the police resulted in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act of 1984 which placed procedural restrictions on police activity and mandated training in technical and human relations skills.

In 1990 children under the age of 14 became exempt from possible incarceration.

British government expenditures on prisons tripled between 1978 and 1990.

The first international conference on criminology and criminal justice met in London in 1872.

The Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, which met in Havana, Cuba, from August 27 to September 7, 1990, focused on international terrorism.

INTERPOL did not officially begin operations until 1946, when the end of World War II brought about a new spirit of international harmony.

Common law reflected the customs and daily practices of English citizens during the Middle Ages.

The Christianizing of England eventually led to the fusion of the coercive power of the state with religious morality.

Law enforcement at the start of the eighteenth century resembled that of the Middle Ages and relied on the justice of the peace, the parish constable and the night watchman.

As the population grew and crime increased, the old law enforcement system proved inadequate.

Whilst the Scotland Yard detectives were generally successful, the famous Jack the Ripper case in 1888 tarnished their image.

During the reign of Henry II, most of the fundamental features of the structure of Anglo-American law emerged.

The Anglo-Saxon legal system was originally a system of tribal justice.

It was during the reign of Henry II (1154-1189) that the old tribal-feudal system of law disappeared and a new system of common law emerged in England.

As Henry II gained control of the government from the feudal lords, he also gained control of the administration of the justice.

The notion of natural crime, a crime against a law of nature rather than against a legal law, was present in the criminal law at its inception.

Unlike medicine or law, which evolved as disciplines and subjects of higher education over a period of thousands of years, the notion of criminal justice as a field of study or as a government system appeared on the scene a mere half century ago.

In 1960 the American crime rate was 1,887 per 100,000 of the population, in 1991 it was 5,897.8 a little more than a threefold increase.

On September 28, 1999, eight persons died in separate incidents in Manhattan.

In Killeen, Texas, on October 16, 1991, George Hennard smashed his Ford Ranger pickup truck into a cafeteria, got out of the cab, and killed twenty-two people with a semiautomatic pistol.

Both Marks and Morris Reubens lived on the earnings of prostitutes, but not content with that income they robbed the clients as well.

During the 1960s the battering of wives changed from a private matter to a criminal justice problem.

By 1988, two-thirds of all law enforcement officers had some college education, a quarter had diploma-level education, and another quarter had bachelors degrees.

It was in 1860 that the use of fingerprints as a reliable means of individual identification really started.

In 1684, the anatomist Doctor Nehemiah Grew published a paper on the subject of fingerprints, which he illustrated with drawings of various fingerprint patterns.

Sir William Herschel, an administrator in the province of Bengal, India, appreciated the unique nature of fingerprints and established the principle of their persistence.

Up to 1905 formal training for the police was scanty and detection aids were scantier.

The system of fingerprint classification revolutionized the work of the detective in London.

In the room detectives found the suspects overcoat, a bottle of whisky still in one of its pockets.

When the suspect came out again, the detectives followed him to the telephone box where he made a call and then to a restaurant in Fieldgate Street.

The separation of solicitors and barristers evolved during the first two centuries after the Conquest.

At first rather formal and rigid, Roman law eventually supplemented rules with flexible standards and moved from concrete to more abstract modes of thought.

The Supreme Courts 1954 decision in the case Brown v. Board of Education settled a dispute between the parents of Linda Brown and their local board of education.

The US congress placed each of the 94 federal judicial districts in one of 12 regional circuits.

Before their appointment, most federal district judges were private attorneys, but some were judges in state courts or US attorneys, and a few were law professors.

The US Declaration of Independence charged that King George III deprived the colonists in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury.

Six organizations in Salford fell victim to computer theft, and the impact of this crime on staff and business was enormous.

In commercial computer theft cases offenders rarely remained on the premises for more than a few minutes.

The immediate cost of commercial computer theft averaged 25,000 dollars per organization.

The committee report identified an increase in commercial computer burglaries in some cities.

In some computer theft cases thieves forced doors and cut through iron bars and grills.

260 premises suffered repeat computer crime over the twelve month period with a total of 345 incidents.

In each case, the burglary occurred between 7.15 p.m. and 8.30 p.m., and on one occasion while staff were still on the premises.

The six incidents of computer equipment theft cost a considerable sum of money.

Courts decide whether a person committed a crime.

25\% of all computer crimes from commercial premises were the result of repeats.

Research by the Department of Trade and Industry found a 60 percent increase in computer theft between 2001 and 2004.

Further concern of computer theft prompted the launch of a computer crime initiative by the Joint Action Group in 1998.

Examination of the reports ensured correct measurement of the extent of computer crime and provided insight into the modus operandi of offenders.

The 60 premises that suffered two or more incidents of computer theft, accounted for 42\% of all computer crimes in the twelve months.

In each case burglars were on the premises for less than two minutes.

The recent computer equipment theft from the company central office had a detrimental effect on business.

The most serious loss of power of the House of Lords resulted from

two parliamentary acts, in 1911 and 1949, which limited the role of

the House of Lords.

The House of Lords approved the Police Bill 1997 only after the Labour Party agreed to a significant amendment.

The problems that rural sheriffs and small-town chiefs most frequently cited as serious were problems familiar to many big-city departments.

In August 1990, the City of Mountlake Terrace, Washington, experienced a rash of suspicious fires that gutted a number of local businesses and private dwellings.

When the federal agents cornered the notorious gangster John Dillinger, in a Wisconsin farmhouse, they got so nervous they opened fire on a car full of innocent people, and killed several, but Dillinger escaped.

The anti-burglary measures included lock-down devices for all computers, a smoke system, and windows with a bomb-proof laminate.

Twentieth-century traffic control presented difficulties as large scale motor vehicle registration brought an all-time traffic death toll of 986 in Chicago in 1934.

An historic battle between gangsters and lawmen that took place at

Union Station in Kansas City changed the face of American justice.

For much of the Metropolitan Police history, a lack of protective

equipment apart from a 15-inch wooden truncheon exposed its

officers to extreme danger.

The early Victorian Peelers regularly faced danger from criminals who often carried firearms.

The original police investigation into Stephens death identified five suspects but did not result in a prosecution.

The war years changed attitudes towards women officers and many stayed on afterwards and joined the regular force.

Technological advances for the police included first uses in the late 1870s of the telegraph and telephone, installation of police call boxes, development and adoption in the 1880s of the Bertillon system of criminal identification, and the development and use at the turn of the century of fingerprinting systems in criminal investigations.

What bothered the police was that the crime scene pictures didn't match.

He asked first thing for my name and police badge number, which I gave him.

A burglar entered the garage of a resident on Park Avenue and stole a VW.

The judge imposed a 15-month driving ban on a motorist and gave him a 200 fine.

The woman suffered facial injuries and shock from the assault by a gang of youths.

The Crown Prince of Nepal gunned down his family over ban on bride last month.

Rivalry between two hotel owners at a seaside village led to an arson attack.

Indian security forces stormed a mosque in Kashmir yesterday and killed ten Muslims.

An inquest jury returned a misadventure verdict on Jack Roling last week.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation launched an intensive search for Frank Nash, a Federal prisoner, which extended over the entire United States and parts of Canada.

The criminals showed little remorse at the trial last week.

In 1996, Dunblane, Scotland, UK a madman killed a whole class of primary school children and their teacher.

The West Yorkshire Police alone took reports of 26,000 incidents of domestic violence in the year 2005.

The attacker grabbed the victim from behind and dragged her into the bushes at the side of the footpath.

The suspect who was at home when the detectives appeared let his dog loose on them.

The killers letter to the police did not have any useful fingerprints.

The arsonist set some 1,488 fires in the city of New York and kept a diary of each one.

FUTURE SIMPLE

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I will* answer

Will I answer?

I will not answer

We will answer

Will we answer?

We will not answer

You will answer

Will you answer?

You will not answer

He/she/it will answer

Will he/she/it answer?

He/she/it will not answer

They will answer

Will they answer?

They will not answer

* For I and we shall is also possible

Use

1. Predictions or guesses, e.g. People will travel to Mars. It wont rain tomorrow.

2. Decisions made at the moment of speaking, e.g. I like this car, Ill buy it.

3. Future events regarded as facts, e.g. Ill be 50 next year.

4. The result of a possible action in the future (with if + Present Simple), e.g. If you are late, the teacher will be angry.

N.B.! There are more ways to express actions in the future: be + going to, Present Continuous, Present Simple. In many cases more than one form is possible.

Shall and will are also used to express requests, orders and offers.

Affirmative

It will be winter soon.

She will come at eight.

Hell be a great inventor.

I shall be rich one day.

Ill help you with pleasure.

He will be twenty next year.

Ill speak to my boss tomorrow.

She will make a very good lawyer.

We shall become lawyers in 5 years.

You will graduate in June next year.

All the family will be at the wedding.

You will hear wonderful news tonight.

Ill meet you at the entrance in a minute.

Tomorrow well be extremely busy.

They will join us after the lecture.

Come on! Well have lots of fun together.

After graduation you will be a policeman.

Men will travel to the stars in the 21st century.

This journey will take you not less than a week.

These scholars will attend the conference in the USA.

If we get tickets, well go to the theatre.

If you go by plane, it will cost you more.

When he is forty, he will have a large family.

I shall go to the South when I pass my last exam.

Before I leave for a holiday I shall visit my parents.

Ill bring you some food as soon as you get hungry.

As soon as the lessons are over well go to the club.

After he is through with his book he will travel abroad.

After she finishes her work she will have a complete rest.

She expects that she will hear from him in a day or two.

Interrogative

Will you be here next week?

Shall I call somebody for help?

Will you please sit down and relax?

Wont you make a report at the scientific conference?

What will you do next year?

What time shall we come and see you?

When will the candidate meet his electors?

How soon will you know your holiday dates?

Who will represent the candidate at the meeting?

Why shall I start the story from the very beginning?

Negative

They will not go for a walk.

You wont believe this story.

Next year will be no different.

The children will not be ready by five.

We will never accept your invitation.

You will not find a single mistake in his report.

We shall not set out for the expedition tomorrow.

Water will not boil at 100 Centigrade when pressure is low.

The teacher will not be angry with you if you tell her the truth.

You will not catch the train unless you leave immediately.

General

My clients will not accept this offer.

The attorney will talk to him as soon as he turns up.

Money will not avail you after you are dead.

Citizens of the future will regard as commonplace much of what is only fantasy today.

Gradual life-style modifications will accompany changes in technology.

Will you wait a minute while I look through the manuscript?

The police will watch him, maybe he'll lead them to the money.

We gradually adopt a set of values that we will live with and accept as true.

Patrick will give you instructions, and from now on he and I will communicate through you.

We'll make a big deal out of this scandal and leak it to the press.

These rumours will add a peculiar flavour to their divorce.

He knows people who'll do anything for money.

The scars will be with him for a few years, but they will eventually fade.

NATO foreign ministers will meetat the alliance's headquarters in Brussels.

This deal will be subject to a lot of criticism.

I'll be in Paris in twenty-four hours, and from there I'll go straight to Zurich.

These men are young and will shape and reshape the Constitution long after I'm dead.

These politicians are staunchly conservative, and the press will eat them alive.

I'll go to my office, wait an hour, and come back in here.

They'll kill you the instant they find you.

If I suddenly get back to the office in the evening, he'll be suspicious.

Your boss will call you at this time tomorrow with instructions.

I'm safe here, and I'll be much safer when I get on a plane and leave the country.

Lets hope the authorities will approve the project.

It is not clear whether the Roman Catholic church will give permission for exhumation.

Will Victor take me into his confidence and tell me his secrets?

In a room with concrete walls the bullets will bounce off, won't they?

Tomorrow night I'll find you another small hotel.

I'll run off somewhere and hide for a few months, maybe a few years.

And who will confirm these facts for you?

The press secretary will address this problem in the morning.

First, we'll get you out of the building, and no one will know it, second, we'll put you on my plane and fly you anywhere you want.

Our paths will cross again one day.

I will not graduate with honours, though I'm somewhere in the top half of my class.

Scientists will explore the nature of earthquakes.

The task will take further review and careful research.

What will I do with all the money?

I'll meet with him in the morning, listen to his advice, then type a two-page report in which I'll repeat whatever he tells me.

If you're not careful, the government will get a big chunk of your estate.

He'll make a million bucks soon.

My secretary will take your application.

Your salary will be twenty-one thousand a year, payable in twelve equal instalments on the fifteenth of each month.

I'll call the boss first thing in the morning with the good news.

His doctor says he'll spend ten days in hospital.

Talk to them, and after that they'll leave you alone.

The truth will set you free.

Students will discover the critical role bacteria play in our life.

Under this scheme of compensation, neither Deck nor I will share in the profits.

The company branch manager will give us two percent interest on our money.

The governor will appoint a successor who'll serve till the next election.

Law

I'll prepare a contract for legal services for the next week.

Well have lots of questions, but we'll drop the charges against you.

I'll never represent your client in court again.

We'll do the investigation and find the culprits.

My client will not pursue his claim for personal injuries against your company.

She'll go to court, plead guilty and pay a fine.

I'll prepare your will any way you want it.

This decision will send the right message to the other four hundred defendants whom I have under indictment.

In exactly nine months, two hundred and seventy days after the

indictment, they'll go to trial.

The suspect will spend almost a year in the county jail before trial.

I'll walk into a courtroom, face the judge, listen to your routine, and I'll plead guilty to the charge of murder.

The special service will use limousines with escorts to and from work, and the Supreme Court police will provide backup and secure this building.

We'll have ballistics and autopsy reports by late this afternoon.

If the situation doesnt change radically, we'll live in a police state in ten years.

The lawyer has no idea when his client will return to the country.

The detectives will find the offenders, but it will take time.

A three-judge panel will hear the case and make a decision.

The President will call in the Attorney General and demand an immediate investigation into the case.

Touch me and I'll sue you first thing tomorrow morning.

We'll read the affidavit, and discuss other things.

If its an interrogation, I won't talk without an attorney present.

The lawyers will assemble grand juries.

He'll be back in two days with a grand jury subpoena.

I will finish law school in May, a month from now, then I'll sit for the bar exam in July.

If it's arson, they won't make any arrests for a few days.

He's confident they'll pursue other leads, other suspects.

There wont be enough evidence, because the victim will not testify.

If I see these charges again, I will not dismiss them.

Who will handle this case on behalf of your firm?

My version of the facts and the law will always remain clear and to the

point.

He will be a crucial witness at trial if the case gets that far.

There won't be a lot of witnesses at the trial.

Unless I hear something very persuasive from the other side, I'll grant the motion.

The trial will involve examination of documents and accounts.

Drug dealers and users will continue their illegal activities no matter what the penalties.

The criminal justice system of the twenty-first century will look much like the system of today.

Deterrence, apprehension, and reformation will be the philosophical trilogy for the day-to-day operations of criminal justice agencies.

Domestic and international terrorism, drug abuse, and change of social values will evolve into a complex tangle of legal and technological issues, which will confront the best law enforcement minds of the future.

Police agencies that are oblivious to the need for change in the end will find themselves at the bottom of the hill.

It seems likely that in the future we shall see a gradual withdrawal of strictly legal handling of more and more types of heretofore criminal behaviour.

In traditional economic systems (such as many tribal societies), the customs of the people determine how society will function.

Dont worry, under Alabama law, you'll get the divorce, full custody, all assets, everything.

I assume we will enter a plea of not guilty.

I'll deny bail since its a capital murder.

Any violation of the procedure will result in contempt of court, and I will deal harshly with any violators.

As soon as his doctor releases him, we'll transfer him to the county jail.

In a typical month, the Air Support Unit of the Metropolitan Police will take part in 450 assignments of all kinds.

The Metropolitan Police Thames Division will continue its valuable service for as long as people and craft are on the river.

Business law professors throughout America will find this material useful for their students.

Future projections are that methamphetamine use will increase, both in the United States and around the world.

It is possible that remote rural areas will become key producers of marijuana and methamphetamines.

Technology will play an important role in crime and crime prevention.

Changes in the design and operation of automobiles will have direct implications for road police.

One of the biggest changes in technology for police will be developments in police radio communication.

What aspects of our contemporary everyday lives will become subject to criminal sanctions in the twenty-first century?

This article will briefly assess the impact of human rights law and the role of European Community in this area.

A new FBI Moscow office will focus on Russian crime encroachment into the United States.

The new Russian émigrés who arrive in the US will be a fertile source for recruitment by the Russian crime groups.

As immigration to the US increases, the Russian crime groups will expand and new groups will appear.

It is probable that Russian crime in California will form relationships with other criminal groups such as the LCN (La Cosa Nostra).

Law enforcement sources indicate that the new law will not eliminate the fraudulent schemes.

If gangs are present in an area, the crime rate will certainly escalate.

A criminal history is usually the only information along with the current charge that the judge and the prosecutor will use in their plea agreement.

The countywide police initiative will target those who offer their services for work and present the householder with an extremely high charge.

The police hope that Operation Grizzlybear will bring about a further decrease in bogus caller thefts.

Distribution of advisory leaflets to elderly people across the county and crime prevention displays in supermarkets will also be features of the Operation Grizzlybear.

According to the Crimes Amendment Bill No. 6 denial of computer service attacks will become an offence.

While New Zealand Police will always detect and apprehend criminals, enforcement alone wont be enough.

Inter-agency liaison and relationships will play a significant role in the police approach to electronic crime.

The Centre for Critical Infrastructure Protection within the Government Communications Security Bureau will provide 24 hour, seven days a week "watch and warn" advice to owners of critical infrastructure and to government departments.

Electronic crime will grow in scope and impact.

We'll hand over the documents and tapes to the police the day after tomorrow.

The number of heroin addicts in the UK will rise to a million in ten years.

The British government will spend £600 million on anti-drug measures.

The new National Hi-tech Crime Unit will specialize in the investigation of computer crime.

The National Hi-tech Crime Unit will have permanent links to Britains Internet connection companies.

The interior minister will work with the federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution.

Installation of CCTV will deter not only serious offences, but also nuisances vandalism, graffiti and litter.

A special group of police officers will investigate serious race crimes across England, Scotland and Wales, regardless of force boundaries.

The defendant wont conform to the conditions of the release program.

The new draft Criminal Code will not cover all areas of criminal law.

In the future, law enforcement will demand new laws which will outlaw many replica guns.

Criminals will take advantage of a weak society if it doesnt protect itself.

The passage of new legislation will make Britain safer and help in the fight against terrorism.

The biometric information in both the new passports and the ID's, like fingerprints and iris scans, will help the police in their fight against terrorism and identity fraud.

The British MI5, which is analogous to the FBI in the United States, will gain jurisdiction over security in Northern Ireland.

The passage of the new legislation will have a direct effect on the police investigation procedure.

Only law enforcement officials will have access to the confidential data, and only for official business.

For a first-time offender, the penalty will probably be a fine only, but you will have a criminal conviction on your record for the rest of your life.

The changes in law on rape will not see the introduction of a lesser offence of date rape.

Your local police station and local community safety unit will

investigate your complaint.

By 2005, the West Midlands police will recruit 862 new officers - almost three times the present number.

The Home Secretary will publish new guidelines for the police use of their stop-and-search powers.

The use of computers by officers at the scene will minimize the extra bureaucratic burden on the police.

Modern technology will reduce some bureaucratic problems for police officers.

Precise intelligence on when and where any terrorist act will take place is the ideal.

Civil libertarians express fear that the government will gain too many police powers and erode personal privacy.

A serious offence will automatically go to the Crown Court.

The discovery of the UK's biggest ever illicit amphetamine factory will tell the police much more about production methods in the UK.

The Home Office will present its main counter-terrorism proposals to the House of Commons next week.

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