Grammar Resource Book - Посібник (Левашов О.С.)
Repeated or usual actions e.g. I play football. He doesn’t play football.
Permanent facts, not connected to time, e.g. Water freezes at zero. Cats like milk.
Situations that exist at the moment of speaking (non-action verbs), e.g. I want some water. She has two brothers.
N B! Verbs to be and to have are irregular and follow a different pattern
He speaks English.
I hate winter frosts.
We are fond of music.
Justice rules the world.
I rarely go to the Zoo.
It never snows in July.
It often rains in November.
She seldom goes to bed late.
Her son does his room himself.
Usually they get to work by bus.
He always comes home for lunch.
Every Saturday they go to a disco.
She always asks a lot of questions.
Most healthy food is really tasteless.
He is impolite, because he is stupid.
This dog barks a lot, but never bites.
I hate warm milk, but I like cold beer.
Vegetables grow well in this climate.
Water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade.
I write letters to my sister every week.
Sometimes she does morning exercises.
He shaves and has a shower every morning.
Snow melts in spring, and first flowers appear.
My wife cooks the meals and I wash the dishes.
I believe that most of American films are rubbish.
He always walks to his office and never takes a bus.
This boy eats a lot, but it looks like he is always hungry.
He dictates to his secretary and then he reads what she types.
I talk a great deal on the telephone to people, whom I hardly know.
We spend most of the time in our offices and seldom look at the world outside.
Do you hear me?
Does she know him well?
Do they like American films?
Does he always behave like that?
Where do your friends live?
What do you do on Sundays?
When does the lecture begin?
How often do you write to your parents?
Don’t you know my new address?
Why doesn’t he do everything in time?
Real men don’t talk much.
She doesn’t speak French.
No one is above suspicion.
We don’t work on Sundays.
This bus doesn’t go downtown.
I like apples but I don’t like pears.
She does not realize what she does.
They do not know any foreign language.
He is very calm, and he doesn’t worry much.
When she gets ill she never takes any medicine.
Actions speak louder than words.
As a rule she opens the door with her own key.
She never travels by air.
He studies hard and seldom fails at examinations.
He laughs best, who laughs last.
I really feel I owe a great deal to Mary.
Why doesn’t Gladys answer the door?
Why do we see lightning before we hear thunder?
Lightning is beautiful, but it kills a thousand people in the world every year.
She doesn’t forget appointments as a rule.
What parts of the body does this disease affect?
Our curiosity keeps us young; it helps us in our life.
How do your relationships with others affect your life?
Mrs. Blade at the post office sees everyone who comes in.
Many people complain that their memory is bad, particularly as they get older.
When people strive for a goal they generally do their best.
Some people like winter holidays, but most of them dream of sun and warm beaches.
During the day I have all sorts of meetings with people, whom I don’t know well or like very much.
A herald is a person who carries messages and makes announcements.
England is a country without a constitution in the strict sense of the word.
If we don’t change with the world about us we die, either physically or mentally.
Dolphins use their teeth when they grasp fish, they don’t chew their food, and swallow the fish whole.
Social science research generally involves the observation of large numbers of individuals.
Over 420 billion tons of goods and more than 270 million people cross over the American border annually.
As society becomes more dependent upon computers, the damage potential of computer viruses increases.
While the United States has two automobiles for every three people, China has only five cars per 100 citizens.
Some experts say that banks around the world routinely transfer over $3 trillion a day through electronic media.
The urban Negro, probably more than any other single group, represents a large segment of contemporary American society that shares a value system and a “view of the world” quite at variance with the middle-class morality.
Many historians select the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 as the most apt date for the commencement of modern history, while others emphasize the discovery of America.
Famous worldwide for the magnificence of its scenery, Scotland possesses a remarkable variety of landscapes and seascapes.
Although many people are not aware of their own basic beliefs, all contemporary societies have their own ideologies.
All democratic nations believe that certain human rights are essential to the full development of the individual’s personality.
In Great Britain, one of the most important determinants of the vote is social class – most blue-collar workers support the Labour party, and the majority of white-collar workers vote for the Conservative party.
Does the media act as an impartial observer of political events or does it influence people’s political views?
Totalitarian regimes strive for total control over all aspects of human life.
If the old order does not adequately cope with the people’s anxieties, totalitarianism with its emphasis on action, charismatic leaders, and the promise of glory, provides an almost irresistible attraction.
What determines why some countries are less immune than others to the lure of totalitarianism?
Most non-democratic leaders gain power by such violent means as revolutions, guerrilla warfare, and military coup d’etat.
An airplane flies because, when the propeller pulls it forward, air moves across its wings.
Four out of every five families in the United States have a car.
A convertiplane is an airplane that flies like a conventional plane but takes off or lands straight up and down.
A spacecraft is a vehicle that takes man out of the earth’s atmosphere into space.
The cabinet meets once or twice a week at 10 Downing Street (where the Prime Minister lives), and the PM controls these important meetings.
The cabinet shares collective responsibility, which means that once they make a decision they do not criticize it outside the meeting, even though they don’t agree with it.
After a general election the party with the most members of Parliament forms the government; the party with the second greatest number of seats becomes the opposition.
Although modern England still has a Royal family whose members perform ceremonial functions, the real power lies in the hands of the two houses of Parliament and the Prime Minister.
The bill becomes a law when the queen approves it.
Modern Iran is a nation in which social interests have distinct primacy over individual rights.
The drug phenomenon is unique in the number of aspects of people’s lives that it affects.
Part of the reason businesses make seemingly unethical decisions is attributable to the fact that some executives do not carefully think through the consequences of their actions for the company and the community.
Ignorance of the law is not a defense.
Jurors are independent of the parties to a trial.
Patrick doesn’t patrol in a police car, he’s a beat cop. As a beat policeman he walks the streets and chats to people in the community.
Statute Law is the main source of English law today.
Certain civil actions are unsuitable for trial by juries.
Jurors have no physical or educational test for their task.
The main division of law is into Criminal Law and Civil Law.
The Criminal Jury comprises twelve persons of either sex.
A “counterclaim” is a claim by a defendant against a plaintiff.
The great majority of murders are crimes of impulse.
Juries represent the verdict of ordinary people of common sense.
Equity is a system of justice, which supplements the Common Law.
The House of Lords stands at the apex of judicial system of Great Britain
The House of Lords is the final court of appeal in civil and criminal matters.
The Committee sits as an advisory board and its procedure is informal.
The absolute independence of the judiciary is vital to our democratic way of life.
The Court of Appeal hears civil appeals from all Divisions of the High Court.
The Crown Court is a superior court, and it exercises original criminal jurisdiction
When we speak of the law of a State we use the term “law” in a special and strict sense.
Some trials are long and, as a consequence, cause inconvenience to jurors.
The registrar of the court keeps the records of the court and performs the administrative work.
The quorum of the Committee is three, but in important cases five members are usually present.
The punishment for crime ranges from death or imprisonment to a money penalty or absolute discharge.
The defence and the prosecution have the right of challenge to the array of jurors or to individual jurors.
When a judge sits without a jury, he determines questions of law and fact.
Jurors are susceptible to corrupt influences, threats, and intimidation from outside parties.
As a general rule, legal aid in criminal cases includes representation by counsel and solicitor.
The “Administration of Justice Act, 1969,” provides a new form of appeal in civil actions from the High Court direct to the House of Lords.
The making of law, the administration of law, and the administration of justice in the courts and tribunals are matters of supreme importance to men everywhere.
The relations between the police and the public are generally good.
The primary duty of the police is the prevention and detection of crime.
The police are responsible for the maintenance of peace and good order in the society.
The police are efficient in the discharge of their important duties, which increase in range and scope year by year.
The size of each police force depends on the population and size of the area.
Many people believe that education provides the best solution to the drug crisis problem.
The use of illegal drugs in America today carries with it a high social cost.
Drugs are both expensive for users and profitable for suppliers.
The cost of drugs forces many users, some of whom have little legitimate income, into commission of property crimes.
The justice system faces the problem of corruption inherent in any social control situation where large amounts of money frequently change hands.
Japan classifies an assault that results in death as “assault”, not homicide.
Greek rape statistics include crimes of sodomy, “lewdness”, seduction of a child, incest, and prostitution.
Interpol and the United Nations are the only international organizations, which regularly collect crime statistics from a large number of countries.
Many countries do not disclose crime statistics information, and those that do often make only partial reports.
The Chinese justice has a system of checks and balances which, in theory, prevents abuses of power.
The Iranian criminal justice system today represents a classic reflection of traditional Islamic law.
The home secretary provides for the coordination of police services throughout Britain, runs the Police College and local police training centres, maintains forensic laboratories, and is ultimately responsible for information management.
Britain does not have a national police force.
The Metropolitan Police District, one of the nation’s 43 police agencies, falls under the exclusive control of the home secretary.
Scotland Yard maintains links with Interpol and handles requests for information from police agencies in other countries.
Magistrates sit as a body, usually in groups of three or more, and hear cases without a jury.
Conviction requires only a majority consensus, not unanimous agreement among jurors.
The Russian government estimates that there are 500,000 prisoners in about 528 prisons and penal colonies throughout the country.
The British home secretary makes appointments to the national Prison Board, which sets policy for the Prison Department.
While an active prison reform movement exists in Britain, it faces many barriers.
Drug traffickers rapidly alter their practices in response to law enforcement activity.
The United Nations advances the cause of crime prevention and disseminates useful criminal justice information.
INTERPOL does not intervene in religious, political, military, or racial disagreements in participant nations.
Because it serves primarily as a source of information, INTERPOL files are large, with nearly 5 million records of various sorts.
Technological advances signal both threats and opportunities for the justice field.
The employee who uses company phones for personal calls, the maintenance worker who steals supply for home use, and the store clerk who lifts items of clothing or jewellery provide examples of occupational criminality.
Computer crimes bear some resemblance to other more traditional crimes such as burglary (illegal entry into a computer system), theft (the stealing of information), and embezzlement (the electronic transfer of funds).
Unfortunately, federal laws do not necessarily guard the interests of many small corporations, nor do they adequately protect the activities of the nation’s millions of home computer users.
Many states set the sixteenth birthday as the age at which a person becomes an adult for purposes of criminal prosecution.
Low IQ, mental retardation, or general mental capacity are not allowable as excuses for criminal behaviour.
Self-defence extends to defence of others and to the defence of one’s home.
Some crimes violate the laws of two different jurisdictions.
Western criminal law generally distinguishes between serious crimes (felonies) and those which are less grave (misdemeanours).
When a serious offence against the person or property occurs this becomes the responsibility of an area criminal investigation department unit.
Any major inquiry quickly generates and accumulates very large amounts of information, particularly in the early stages.
There is no readily available answer to the question of how legal norms and legal institutions emerge and take their particular shape.
The legal institution is a reflection of the social setting in which it exists; as that setting changes, the legal system changes.
Every legal problem arises within the framework of a particular set of social institutions.
The administration of the criminal law is a highly selective process and involves the use of a wide range of discretion by the law-enforcement agencies.
Despite the fact that professional criminals operate in, and are members of, the lower class, these groups generally enjoy considerable immunity from the imposition of legal sanctions.
Professional gamblers, prostitutes, and hustlers perform certain services for the law enforcement agencies, and typically these groups of professional criminals develop a special kind of relationship with law-enforcement agencies.
The evidence for where the most crimes occur consists in past records.
Among the major crimes, the bulk of these (roughly 80 per cent) are crimes against property, a fact which contrasts rather sharply with the belief that most police activities centre on crimes against the person, such as assault, murder, and rape.
Aggressive driving (road rage) is currently the top threat to highway safety.
People who intentionally abuse and misuse information cover the whole spectrum of criminals.
Community policing involves partnerships between citizens and law enforcement agents.
Even though one hurdle to community policing remains the development of favourable citizen-police interactions beyond those that the police usually maintain (citizen as complainant, citizen as victim, or citizen as criminal), the other, more formidable obstacle concerns the organization itself.
Many small-town police often point out that they actually know most of the people whom they police.
Offences against the person and property, their gravity, their complexity, and the circumstances, under which they come to notice, vary greatly.
An important inheritance from the earlier years of the Anglo-American legal system is the view that personal wrongs are transgressions against the state and that the state and only the state has the right to punishment for such acts.
The legal system, like all other social institutions, reflects the character of the times.
The judiciary and the police focus efforts on some laws during one period and on other laws during another.
Although the Juvenile court retains a judge, this is in most cases simply an anachronism with little real consequence for the functioning of the court.
Legal norms are an expression of those societal values, which transcend the immediate interests of individuals or groups.
The Sherman Antitrust Laws are examples of laws, which presumably benefit the majority at the expense of the more powerful minority of American corporations.
The influence of interest groups is but one aspect of the processes, which determine the emergence and focus of the legal norms.
The general conclusion is that the legal institution is a reflection of the social setting in which it exists; as that setting changes, the legal system changes, even the particular source of changes varies with variations in the social setting.
The fact remains that the middle class imposes on other groups adherence to rules, which are in their own best interest.
The criminal justice system faces challenges that far exceed its human and capital resources.
Experts frequently present crime data in terms of crime rates.
Administrators and researchers collect facts, observations and other pertinent information on the criminal justice system, criminals, victims, and types of crimes.
Estimates of the extent and nature of crime in the United States come primarily from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports and from the National Crime Survey which measures crime through reports by victims.
The National Crime Survey gathers information about crimes (where and when they occur, use of weapons, number of offenders), about offenders (age, gender and race), and about the victims themselves.
Crime problems do not stop at national borders.
The production and sale of illegal drugs is a transnational operation and terrorist groups often work across national borders.
Differences in culture include differences in norms and values, and that leads to different laws.
In most countries, alcohol consumption is a perfectly legitimate leisure activity, while in some countries it is a crime.
Though persons under 18 years of age comprise about 8 percent of the population, they account for almost one-third of the arrests for crimes.
Arrest rates decline after age 30 and taper off to about 2 percent or less from age 50 on.
A lively scientific debate currently centres on whether crime decreases with age for all offenders, even those who commit frequent offences.
Most homicides (61\%) occur between relatives and friends.
Mass and serial murderers pose a particularly difficult problem for the criminal justice system.
Child abuse usually occurs in the home, and the children rarely report their victimization to the police.
According to a national survey of 6,002 households, one member of every six couples experiences a spousal physical assault.
Neither the individual penal codes nor international law recognizes terrorism as a crime by itself.
The law recognizes the difference in harm between crimes against the person and crimes against property.
Fraud is the acquisition of the property of another person through deception.
Unlike violent crimes and property offences, which penal codes classify quite neatly, white-collar and corporate offences include a heterogeneous mix of corporate and individual crimes, from fraud, deception, and corruption to pollution of the environment.
The crime-detection mechanisms on which the police traditionally rely seem inadequate for the vast body of white-collar crimes.
Many criminal justice agencies, especially police departments, recruit only from among candidates with some college education.
Our theories of crime have a significant impact on how the criminal justice system operates and how it treats individual offenders once they enter the system.
Biological and psychological theories assume that criminal behaviour results from physical or mental conditions that distinguish criminals from non-criminals.
The largest police force in Great Britain is the Metropolitan Police with about 29,000 officers.
Everyone who joins a British police force starts as a Uniform Constable and for the first two years he or she trains both at a College away from home and on the beat with a tutor constable.
On successful completion of their service British policemen usually retire at 55 years of age.
The Metropolitan Police Scenes of Crime Branch incorporates the Fingerprint, Photographic and Scenes of Crime Examination Services.
Senior Identification Officers retrieve forensic clues, e.g. blood samples, shoe marks etc., and forward them to the Forensic Science Laboratory for analysis.
The British police system relies heavily on public co-operation and approval.
The police act for the good of society as a whole.
The Diplomatic Protection Group maintains effective 24-hour protection for high risk and politically sensitive premises.
The Metropolitan Police helicopters normally fly at heights of between 800 and 1,500 feet, but when they are in the neighbourhood of Heathrow, their maximum height is much lower.
The Metropolitan Police Underwater Search Unit consists of nine divers with an Inspector in charge.
The Forensic Science Laboratory analyses natural and synthetic fibres, examines guns, examines documents in cases of fraud and other serious incidents, and analyses tool and other kinds of marks.
Today the government places far less emphasis on antitrust law than in the past.
The study of black Americans’ struggle for equality under the law illustrates the effect of historical and cultural attitudes on the law.
The Bill of Rights in the US Constitution protects an individual from the power and activities of the government.
Sometimes, injustice arises from the acts of other individuals or private business.
Legal philosophers argue that rights exist independent of any formal government recognition, since all persons have certain natural rights.
Totalitarian regimes jail or kill dissenters, prohibit or discourage religious worship, or arrest people without charge and punish them without trial.
Totalitarian governments frequently have constitutions that provide many of the same freedoms that exist in democratic states.
Law is not separate from the culture, history, and times in which it exists.
Is there a danger in limitations that the law places on the exercise of rights?
The appointment of English judges to the superior courts from among the barristers is a convention, which dates back to the 13th century.
Judicial salaries are notably less than the earnings of a successful solicitor or barrister.
Where salary differentials exist between superior court judicial positions they are nominal.
The English legal system owes its reputation, and its reception by other nations, as much to its personalities as to its principles.
The rare judge who steps down to business often elicits a negative response from the bar, partially because the prestige and a knighthood of life peerage do not terminate with the judicial resignation.
The English judge is independent in two regards, first from interference from the government and second from influence from social causes.
Specialists in ancient Roman law subdivide their subject into various periods.
Crime prevention is an activity, which positively reduces crime and the number of victims.
Crime prevention incorporates issues such as law enforcement, investigation, schools involvement, environmental and social improvement, in addition to physical security.
Community Safety is a broad concept that embraces crime prevention, and any activity, which increases public security, safety and reassurance.
Courts play an important role in our society for a number of reasons.
Federalism gives some functions to the United States government and leaves the other functions to the states.
Of all the federal courts, the United States district courts are the most numerous.
The Supreme Court of the United States, in Washington, D.C., is the most famous federal court.
The US Congress creates the district courts and the courts of appeals, as well as sets the number of judges in each federal court.
State courts are essential to the administration of justice in the United States because they handle by far the largest number of cases and have the most contact with the public.
Federal courts do not have the same broad jurisdiction that state courts have.
Some cases are such that only federal courts have jurisdiction over them.
Most cases in federal courts are civil rather than criminal.
Appeals for review of federal administrative agency actions are also federal civil cases.
Although the federal courts hear significantly fewer cases than the state courts, the cases they do hear are more often of national importance, because of the federal laws they enforce and the federal rights they protect.
A civil case begins when the plaintiff files a complaint against the defendant.
The idea of the jury is an ancient one that goes back in English history hundreds of years.
The US Constitution guarantees the option of a jury trial to every criminal defendant and to the parties in most civil cases.
Computer thieves compile “shopping lists” of the most popular items of hardware.
The preponderance of the evidence indicates that capital punishment does not act as a deterrent to murder.
Does the imposition of punishment on parking-law violators have the same effect as is the case for drug addicts and murderers?
The annual American Computer Security Institute survey cites Internet connections as the most frequent point of attack.
Many women in prison claim that separation from their children is the most difficult part of their punishment.
Six percent of women are pregnant when they enter prison, yet most states make no special arrangements for the care of newborns.
Children with mothers in prison often experience financial hardship, the shame and social stigma that prison carries, loss of emotional support and fear for their mother's safety.
What does an officer say when s/he makes an arrest?
A passive millimeter wave (MMW) technology allows for rapid and remote detection of metallic and nonmetallic weapons, plastic explosives, drugs and other contraband under multiple layers of clothing at a distance of up to 12 feet without a direct physical search.
In places with little crime, what accounts for the low crime rate?