Grammar Resource Book - ( ..)

Gerund

Form

Gerund has the same form as Participle I.

Active

Passive

Simple

inviting

being invited

Perfect

having invited

having been invited

Use

Gerund is used like nouns. , e.g. Smoking is harmful. She was angry with his having said that.

General

Eugenies dream of becoming a teacher came true.

He never stopped studying and learning.

Our visitor bore every mark of being an average British merchant.

Hughes started writing poetry in grammar school.

When you read a play instead of watching it, you are still the audience, but you create an imaginary performance in your mind.

She sent her first stories to a friend, who submitted them to a publisher without telling her.

People believe that competing on the Olympic field helps nations avoid fighting on a real battlefield.

Paying careful attention to the cause-effect relationships in a story helps you follow the plot and understand the characters.

Some people can perfectly recite a poem after having read it only once many years earlier.

Organizing our thoughts is a key element in not being forgetful, regardless of age.

A good education is a goal well worth striving for.

President Polk deliberately provoked Mexico into attacking the United States in the year 1846.

We didnt fire our guns at other birds for fear of disturbing the eagles.

It is not easy to be a farmer in todays world: crop prices keep falling, machinery prices keep rising.

Alchemy tried to find a means of transmuting cheaper metals into gold and silver.

There is a potential danger of being bitten when one plays with a strange dog.

Toms sister positively enjoyed washing dishes, making beds, and cleaning the house.

I did not dare tell anybody about my dream for fear of being laughed at.

Beginning anything new can be challenging.

Receiving the letter made Laura even more curious about the place her mother was visiting.

For a month James worked hard on practicing his swimming style and endurance.

Beginning something new can mean making difficult choices.

She always had some good excuse for not talking about the subject.

The story describes the difficult job of rebuilding the city after the earthquake and beginning anew.

Virginias childhood experiences had an influence on her writing children rhymes.

After attending college she returned to her hometown.

At the age of 7 Edison began selling newspapers.

Beginning in the mid-1970s many American families began travelling by van.

Many families obtained food by fishing in nearby lakes and rivers.

Making comparisons helps you increase your knowledge of how two things are alike and different.

Felling trees and grubbing out bushes were done with iron tools.

She has stopped worrying about competing with her brother and the things he does well.

It was the Mayans belief that time, after making a grand circle, would always come back.

Marys having got a new job in the city meant leaving behind her familiar surroundings.

Though force is the most effective instrument for seizing power in a society, it is not the most effective instrument for retaining and exploiting a position of power and deriving the maximum benefits from it.

Law

The jury deliberated for six hours without being able to reach a decision.

I have the honour of presenting my annual report on the work of the police service.

The report recommended using partnership or working with others, as an approach to solving problems in society.

The specialist units defined priority issues with the overall aim of improving their performance.

After being cautioned a person is questioned, or elects to make a statement.

Trafficking in controlled substances is, by definition, an illegal activity.

The state legislators are considering eliminating parole for certain crimes.

Interdiction involves efforts aimed at stopping drugs from entering the United States.

The study determined that 78\% of the work load of Chinese attorneys consisted of defending accused criminals.

The Iranian legal code specifies whipping for the crimes of pimping, kissing by an unmarried couple, and cursing.

A British human rights expert criticized Russian authorities for throwing petty offenders into jail.

Computers in police departments perform such routine tasks as word processing, filing, record keeping, printing reports, and scheduling human resources and facilities.

Factors which prevent criminal justice agencies from successfully adapting available high technology are numerous.

Civil law provides a formal means for regulating non-criminal relationships between persons.

The burden of proving insanity falls upon the defendant.

The suspect was not guilty of the criminal action by virtue of having been insane.

Hunting accidents rarely result in criminal prosecution because the circumstances surrounding them clearly show the unintentional nature of the shootings.

Before carrying out a search the officer may question a person about his behaviour.

It is essential that we have an understanding of the historical events which have been so significant in shaping the current state of the legal system.

The heritage from feudal England has been more important in establishing the structure of the legal system than in determining the content of the laws.

The anti-drug laws are currently viewed by most law enforcers as a necessary device for eliminating the immoral practice of taking drugs and reducing the crime which is associated with addiction.

Being more frequently involved with governmental agencies, such as those that dispense welfare, vastly increases the possibility of deviance being officially discovered.

Most, probably more than 80 per cent of the crime effort by law enforcers consists in arresting and processing persons accused of very minor offences: drunkenness, vagrancy, streetwalking, and the like.

Exceeding the posted speed limit or driving too fast for conditions is one of the most prevalent factors contributing to traffic crashes.

Community policing was developed in 1980s primarily as a big-city strategy for reducing fear of crime and improving police-community relations.

People under 10 are irrefutably presumed to be incapable of committing crime.

Although the legitimate use of violence has remained the exclusive right of the state, such a device is not sufficient for maintaining social order.

Coercion is not the most efficient means of ensuring even so relatively simple a goal as the collection of taxes.

Being familiar with the facts of the case made the jury better able to establish the truth.

There is widespread agreement on the value of developing an increasingly rational system for meting out justice.

The role of interest groups in determining the content of legal norms is paramount.

It is possible that shoplifters became more careful after having been arrested once, but it is more likely that they were in fact deterred from further shoplifting by the experience of being caught.

A much greater proportion of a thiefs energy is devoted to avoiding capture and imprisonment than is devoted to stealing.

Policing a society ensures an orderly, secure life for its members.

At the time of the first interrogation the detective Chief Inspector had no knowledge of any crime having been committed.

Switzerland has the reputation of having one of the lowest crime rates in Europe.

You may stop answering questions at any time.

Parliament can prolong its own life beyond the normal period without consulting the electorate.

The tattoos may be of assistance in determining the subject's criminal background and activity.

Military service is a plus in developing the appropriate police qualifications.

In the early 1900s no one dreamed of associating drug abuse with criminality.

After accumulating some 8,000 pages of testimony, the committee produced two reports on law enforcement.

In the Narcotic Control Act of 1956 a special penalty was set for selling heroin to a minor from a minimum of 10 years to life, or death.

I consider keeping dangerous drugs out of the United States just as important as keeping armed enemy forces from landing in the United States.

After poisoning his wife, the famous murderer Dr. Crippen sailed to Canada on the SS Montrose.

Because genetic material is unique to each person, identifications are made through isolating this material from traces of body fluids or tissue.

According to Forensic Science Service Researchers there is a fifty million to one chance of two people having the same DNA profile.

The British National Criminal Intelligence Service operations include processing and disseminating information, analyzing major criminal activity and helping law enforcement agencies both at home and abroad.

Most of the informants were only interested in passing on information and remaining anonymous.

People should be deterred from committing crime by the fear of being caught rather than the fear of punishment.

Policing is about preventing crime taking place and taking action after a crime has been committed.

It soon became obvious that the plain-clothes detectives were producing results in preventing and solving crime.

Anti-social behaviour plays a major part in heightening people's fear of crime.

The focus of police efforts will be on making streets and town centres safer.

Forensic science is a scientific method of gathering and examining evidence.

The English scientist Sir Francis Galton designed the first elementary system for classifying fingerprints by grouping the patterns into arches, loops, and whorls.

The final step in bringing fingerprints to national prominence was the formation of the FBI Fingerprint Section under A. J. Renoe in 1924.

The Police Department's deputy commissioner for intelligence speaks fluent Arabic, an advantage in ferreting out information from the city's Arab immigrants.

When you give personal or financial information to people you do not know personally, you increase your chances of becoming a victim of fraud.

You can minimize your risk of becoming a victim of fraud by following a few simple hints.

The police at times have lagged behind other sectors in reaping the benefits of technology.

Police records management systems do everything from inventorying property and cataloging evidence to calculating solvability factors.

The job of fulfilling special technology needs for state and local law enforcement belongs to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the criminal justice research arm of the U. S. Department of Justice.

Federal policymakers coordinate technology development efforts for avoiding fragmentation and duplication of effort and ensuring certain systems are compatible.

Police technologies are used in performing key functions: safeguarding life, protecting citizens, solving crimes, communicating with citizens and police colleagues, and managing the police agency.

Hundreds of millions of dollars went to fostering police use of new technologies.

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration registered significant achievements such as educating and training thousands of criminal justice personnel, implementing new and worthwhile projects, and developing new skills and capacities for criminal justice analysis, planning, and coordination.

Getting a product and product information to the police market is expensive.

The American police on their own have developed no national organization for establishing standards for law enforcement equipment.

The Office of Law Enforcement Standards performs work of developing standards and testing police equipment.

Each regional technological center is responsible for encouraging research and development within specific areas of law enforcement and corrections as well as providing test beds for experimentation and evaluation.

The Integrated Ballistics Identification System has been successful in linking a number of shootings to one weapon or suspect.

The Federal Aviation Administration has invested in developing explosives detection technology, a law enforcement priority.

In 1928 Detroit police began using the one-way radio, in 1934

Boston police began using the two-way radio.

In addition to dealing with crime, disorder, and other problems, the police carried out service functions such as caring for derelicts, operating soup kitchens, regulating public health, and handling medical and social emergencies.

Guiding officers in determining the appropriate level of force is taught at academies throughout the country.

The Internal Investigation Group from the Department of Professional Standards is responsible for investigating all deaths or potential deaths in police custody.

A new study on career criminals has spurred interest in focusing police resources on catching the most active and dangerous chronic offenders.

This brief sketch shows the necessity for, and the difficulty of, achieving a consensus for the definition of the term gang.

Prison inmates bribe guards into allowing them mobile phones, computers and even guns.

Yesterday a police inspector was jailed for 12 years for raping two women in their own homes.

A motorist was imprisoned for nine years last week after admitting running down and killing an officer on the beat.

In future, young offenders will be paying back by clearing litter, cleaning up graffiti and minding the property they have vandalized.

A 22-year-old man was detained last month after confessing to the killings.

A number of suggestions have surfaced recently on expanding anti-drug efforts.

Criminalizing and penalizing a child for behaviour that does not cause serious damage to the development of the child or harm to others should be avoided.

In the United States Sicilian immigrants replicated their traditional family structure in organizing criminal activity.

In many jurisdictions asking people for money is not illegal.

In a one-person car, a police officer stands a slightly greater chance of being injured in an assault.

Educational efforts in prison are far more difficult than providing public school education.

Certainty of punishment is more important that either the severity of swiftness of a sanction in achieving the goal of deterrence.

How do judges determine the risk of releasing the defendant pending trial?

Due to diversion (no-trial) programs the offender avoids the stigma of being labelled a criminal, as well as well as the harshness of incarceration.

Some of the U.N. norms and guidelines aim primarily at making criminal justice humane.

In Mississippi, three young black men were arrested and tortured into a confession of having committed a crime.

Excluding illegally obtained evidence punishes the police for violating the law.

Problems in interpreting video images and demonstrating their validity as evidence may be numerous.

Recruiting and selecting police officers is an extremely important part of the administrative duties of a police department.

The newer civil statutes have the advantage of being relatively easy to enforce.

In the 1920s and early 1930s, the Berkeley police laboratory became the model and training ground for police laboratory technicians throughout the country.

POT POURRI

General

When you have finished correcting your report, copy it.

On Saturday Adam wanted to sleep early, but he had promised his friend Billy that they would go over to the school to play baseball.

Theres a horse named Widow-Maker, and every cowboy who tries to ride it is sure to be thrown off.

She seemed to be sinking down, down in the water and for one horrible second she didnt think shed surface.

Everyone, including scientists, think sharks have to keep moving to keep water flowing over their gills.

There was a man who himself had never been far from his village, but he had heard many travelers speak of the wonders and wisdom to be found in the outside world.

Because of our curiosity we may leave behind all the comfort and security we have won to look for new discoveries.

Once information takes root in the long-term memory, it is stored forever, even if we think weve forgotten it.

Plan to pause regularly while reading, summarize what you have read up to that point, and predict what might happen next.

Such a research is a weighty matter, and the penalty for being wrong is to have other scientists laugh at you.

Only a callous person can see suffering without trying to relieve it.

Microsoft has installed a panic button in its Messenger product that will enable users to report suspected sexual predators directly to the coppers.

How did knowing the events were described in chronological order help you to know what to expect as you read?

Write a paragraph describing what happened the first time you were given a job to do.

The newspaper article Making Ready for New City Already Begun describes the various efforts being made to restore order and to begin the rebuilding process.

Instead of trying to understand something about the people who built these cities, many people came to the ruins to take the things the Indians had left behind.

Future computers, it is hoped, will sort through the accumulated information, allowing us to distinguish the significant from the mundane and permitting us to make use of that which is of interest.

Many large corporations employ experts to detect unauthorized access to data processing equipment.

Many hackers are tempted to try their skill at invading highly protected systems.

A number of very important technology projects were implemented or developed during the year, and we are well on the way to having an infrastructure which will meet the challenges we face as we approach the 21st century.

Law

Faced with mounting public concern over street crime in the 1960s, the Supreme Court was under pressure to legitimize prudent police action for the purpose of preventing a specific crime about to be committed, even when an officer had no probable cause to make an arrest.

The purpose of consultative groups is to allow the community to have real influence over police decisions and objectives, including allocation of resources between different and sometimes competing demands, so that local needs and priorities become a significant factor in developing police plans.

The police must remain vigilant to ensure that improved performance is never achieved through a relaxation of ethical standards.

This year the use of speed and traffic light offence cameras has doubled resulting in action being taken against 60,000 offenders.

A state that authorizes ships to carry its flag must issue documents to the registered ship evidencing authorization.

There are three different kinds of jurisdiction which a court may exercise over the parties one of these three must be present for the case to go forward.

Most states have statutes allowing the courts to exercise jurisdiction over non-resident motorists who have been involved in accidents in the state.

Once a party has made a claim against some other party, he may then make any other claim he wishes against that party.

Law may be defined as a rule of human conduct, imposed upon and enforced among, the members of a given state.

Rules or laws are drawn up to ensure that members of the society may

live and work together in an orderly and peaceful manner.

If the rules or laws are broken, compulsion is used to enforce obedience.

Before 1948 peers accused of serious criminal offences were entitled to be tried by the House of Lords, but this right was abolished by the Criminal Justice Act of that year.

There are usually three or four ex-Lords Chancellor who are able to bring wide experience to bear on the proceedings, as well as act as judges in the cases which come before the Lords when acting as an appellate court.

The three divisions of the court are of equal competence, so each is empowered to try any action, but for administrative purposes and convenience specific matters are allocated to each division as described below.

As a result of the Administration of Justice Act, 1970, a new Commercial Court has been added to deal with court cases involving traders and merchants.

When hearing cases, the judges sit singly, but in exceptional cases (for example, defamation) a jury may be empanelled to assist the court.

Actions relating to land must be brought in the court of the district wherein the land is situated.

To relieve the burden of work falling on the Family Division of the High Court in regard to divorce petitions, and with a view to reducing legal costs, the county courts were given a limited divorce jurisdiction.

Since 1974 small claims e.g. for debts, whether for goods sold, work done, or money lent, or for damages for negligence where the amount in dispute does not exceed £100, may be dealt with informally before an arbitrator who is usually the Registrar.

Formerly a convicted person who wanted to appeal against what he considered too long a sentence ran the risk of having his sentence increased by the Court of Appeal, but this risk is now eliminated, the number of appeals on this ground having grown accordingly.

Any offence punishable with three months` imprisonment or more is indictable, i.e. the accused may claim trial by jury which will be in the Crown Court.

Those jurors objected to will be asked to stand down and others will be empanelled to take their places.

Where a juror dies or is ill, provided that both sides agree and the number of jurors is not reduced below ten, the case may continue and a verdict may be given.

Anyone between the ages of 18 and 65 registered as an elector who has lived in the country for five years or more since the age of 13 becomes liable for jury service.

The court will not make an order for legal aid unless it is satisfied that the persons means are such that he requires assistance in meeting the cost of the proceedings.

To ascertain the amount of the contribution an applicant for legal aid makes towards the costs of the action he will be required to produce written evidence of means.

Once the preliminary inquiries are completed, a police officer will have to decide whether he has sufficient evidence to justify proceedings against the suspect.

The cardinal rule of English law is that a confession made to a person in authority such as a police officer will only be admitted in evidence at the trial when such confession has been made freely and voluntarily, i.e. without constraint, force, or as a result of inducement held out by the officer.

You are not obliged to say anything unless you wish to do so but what you say may be put into writing and given in evidence.

Any statement made in accordance with the rules should, whenever possible, be taken down in writing and signed by the person making it after it has been read to him and he has been invited to make any corrections he may wish.

We cannot go about our work or perform our functions as citizens unless we have a reasonable assurance that we shall not be molested in what we do, and that our property will be reasonably secure.

The agents appointed to ensure the peace is preserved and that crimes are prevented and detected are the police.

Regardless of the program used, there is little evidence to date to support the belief that education will produce the desired effect upon problem drug users or those at risk of beginning drug use.

Both Interpol and the United Nations can only request crime statistics data, and have no way of checking on the accuracy of the data reported to them.

Political biases are found in crime statistics reported by nations whose values will not allow an accurate admission of the number or frequency of certain kinds of culturally reprehensible crimes.

The Chinese believe that vigorous defense strategies such as those found in the adversarial framework of Western justice can lead to criminals escaping responsibility.

If a decision is made to prosecute, the court may conduct its own investigation prior to the start of trial to determine whether prosecution is warranted.

In 1990, authorities in the central Chinese province of Shuanxi reportedly formed a special anti-drug trafficking force to combat organized gangs who were importing heroin from the Golden Triangle area of Thailand, Laos, and Burma.

In China even persons sentenced to death are generally granted a two-year period during which they may repent and attempt to demonstrate that they have changed.

Islamic legal codes have established a minimum value of stolen items which could result in amputation being imposed upon the offender.

In Iranian courts defendants are, in practice, not presumed innocent, and judges` personal biases may be just as important in decisions as the evidence presented in courts.

The 1967 Criminal Law Act extended arrest powers to private citizens who caught offenders in criminal activity or who had reasonable suspicion to believe that someone had committed an arrestable offence.

Officers, who routinely patrol highly congested areas, including those with considerable international traffic such as major airports, are now armed with handguns and automatic weapons as a precaution against terrorist attack.

Magistrates` courts are staffed by unpaid lay justices who are not required to have formal training in the law.

Growing crime rates, high levels of unemployment, increased drug use, and the development of poverty-ridden ghetto-like areas in many of the nations large cities have all contributed to a public perception of unnecessary leniency in the criminal justice system.

In 1938 the International Society for Criminology (ISC) was formed to bring together people from diverse cultural backgrounds who shared an interest in social policies relating to crime and justice.

The proceeds from illicit drugs are now so enormous that they can distort financial systems as they are laundered through them.

The codification of international criminal law and the creation of an international criminal court were strongly suggested as basic planks in a platform designed to defuse terrorism and curb international criminal activity by organized gangs.

Advancing technology, along with legislation designed to control it, will create crimes never before imagined.

The future will see a race between technologically sophisticated offenders and law enforcement authorities as to who can wield the most advanced skills on either side of the age-old battle between crime and justice.

Because the DNA molecule is very stable, genetic tests can be conducted on evidence taken from crime scenes long after latent fingerprints have disappeared.

Gary S. Green defines occupational crime as any act punishable by law which is committed through opportunity created in the course of an occupation that is legal.

Given the wide range of expertise demanded of todays law enforcement personnel, it is probably unrealistic to expect detectives to be experts in the investigation of computer crime.

Only through a massive infusion of funds to support the purchase of new equipment and the hiring or training technologically sophisticated personnel can tomorrows law enforcement agencies hope to compete with high-technology criminals.

What future benefits and threats to the practice of criminal justice can you imagine emanating from technological advances which are bound to occur over the next few decades?

The US Constitution is the final authority in all questions pertaining to the rights of individuals, the power of the federal government and the states to create laws and prosecute offenders, and the limits of punishments which can be imposed for law violations.

The law can be thought of as a force which supports social order, but which is opposed to rapid social change.

If laws are primarily the result of efforts of powerful interest groups to have their values sustained and represented, will it ever be possible to have a truly just society?

General rules of evidence, search and seizure, procedures to be followed in an arrest, and other specified processes by which the justice system operates are contained in procedural law.

For a criminal definition to be imposed upon a social situation, it is necessary that the body of the crime be established.

Threatening the president of the United States is taken seriously by the Secret Service, and individuals are frequently arrested for boasting about planned violence to be directed at the president.

An omission to act may be criminal where the person in question is required by law to do something.

A person who acts recklessly, and thereby endangers others, may be found guilty of a crime when a harm occurs, even though no negative consequences were intended.

Causation refers to the fact that a clear link needs to be identifiable between the act and the harm occasioned by the crime.

The principle of punishment says that no crime can be said to occur where a punishment has not been specified in the law.

Defences to a criminal charge include claims based upon personal, special, and procedural considerations that the defendant should not be held accountable for their actions, even though they may have acted in violation of the criminal law.

Self-defence strategy makes the claim that the harm committed was not criminal because it was undertaken in order to ensure ones own safety in the face of certain injury.

The courts have held that where a path of retreat exists for a person being attacked, it should be taken.

What appear as accidents may actually be disguised criminal behaviour.

Every reasonable effort must be made to reduce to the minimum the embarrassment that a person being searched may experience.

Any search involving the removal of more than an outer coat, jacket, gloves, headgear or footwear may only be made by an officer of the same sex as the person searched and may not be made in the presence of anyone of the opposite sex unless the person being searched specifically requires it.

All information coming to the attention of the police regarding the case is entered in a nationally standardized format, allowing this to be collated and integrated and selected material, and combinations of detail, to be retrieved as requested.

New laws are passed in an effort to solve perceived problems of prevailing social conditions.

The issue in the classic Miranda case was whether or not the police could interrogate a suspected criminal without the suspects first been given the right to refuse to submit to such interrogation.

The Court has always held that a defendants civil liberties have to be protected and that the police can not use undue pressure (such as physical brutality) to obtain a confession.

To understand the workings of the legal order in contemporary America and England, one must comprehend that many of the problems within the legal institution stem from the attempt by the middle class to impose their own standards and their own view of proper behaviour on groups whose values differ.

Laws exist which prohibit a man and his wife from having sexual intercourse on Sunday, and there are laws which declare it a delinquent act for a person under the age of eighteen to smoke or talk back to his parents.

At every step of the law-enforcement process, from deciding where to send patrolmen to look for crime to determining how many years a man should be sent to prison, the organizations that are responsible for enforcing the law make decisions that have the net effect of determining what types of offences will come to the notice of officials, what kinds of offences and offenders will be processed, and precisely how far this processing will go.

The public, the news media, and colleagues will be much readier to praise the officer, prosecutor, and judges who find a wealthy person guilty of committing a serious offence than they will the officer who has arrested the same alcoholic who has been in and out of jail a hundred times.

Given the criteria by which law enforcement agencies are judged and the conflicting cross-pressures they are subjected to, it is virtually impossible for a law enforcement system to operate effectively and efficiently without developing policies and practices which are mutually advantageous to professional criminals and the legal system.

To accomplish the goal of apprehending drug sellers it is most efficient if the police can use drug users as informants.

Laws prohibiting gambling, prostitution, drug use, homosexuality, and other minor sexual deviances are unique in that there is a conspicuous lack of community consensus as to whether or not there should even be laws prohibiting such things in the first place.

There is little question in most persons` minds that rape, murder, aggravated assault, and theft are acts which should be punished by the law, but the consensus ends abruptly when one turns to the laws controlling other types of conduct.

Often we find crime prevalent where we look for it, not because of the inherent criminality of the areas surveyed, but merely because crime is sufficiently widespread so that any area that was inundated by policemen would show a correspondingly high crime rate.

One fact of business life that works against computer crime is that the technically skilled individuals capable of creating or modifying programs for illicit purposes are usually not directly associated with the activities involved in converting criminal activity to gain.

If we are to stop young people from entering the malicious hacker culture, we must understand what it is, how it works, and how it attracts them.

The name or photograph of any person under 17 appearing in the case must not be printed in any newspaper or broadcast without the authority of the court or Home Secretary.

The Restrictive Practices Court, established by the Restrictive Practices Act 1956, hears cases relating to the area of commercial law concerned with whether an agreement is unlawful owing to the extent to which it restricts the trading capabilities of one of the parties.

An influential group of criminal justice thinkers has argued that just as a society must maintain armed forces to defend itself against foreign aggressors, it must maintain a force of internal peacekeepers to defend itself against aggression from within.

The word police can be generally said to mean the arrangements made in all civilized countries to ensure that the inhabitants keep the peace and obey the law.

Opposition to the new Metropolitan Police Force was universal and there is little doubt that it was imposed on London against the will of the people.

The early police had to be mild mannered, helpful and courteous in order to survive in the face of the strong opposition.

In the face of the mounting crime, eighteenth century authorities, in the absence of a proper police force, had no real answer other than to make punishment of offenders more severe.

Increasing anxiety at the level of crime led to further improvements and by the time the Metropolitan Police was founded in 1829 there were well over one hundred paid officials with a responsibility for preventing and detecting crime.

The Riot Act of 1714 provided that if twelve or more persons assembled unlawfully to disturb the peace, any one justice should attend and by proclamation call upon them to disperse.

A failure to understand the changed temper of the times and the lack of an acceptable response to riots resulted in what is generally referred to as Peterloo Massacre in 1819.

Throughout 1830, local authorities used delaying tactics in attempts to resist the handing over of police powers and organization to the government and in the autumn of that year came the first of a long series of riots aimed at driving police from the streets.

It can be seen from the list of the duties performed by police in the nineteenth century that much of their time was spent on matters which do not appear to conform strictly with the more readily accepted roles of preventing disorder and crime unless those words were to be interpreted in a broad sense.

In the end of the 19th century the police in England were developing into uniformed social workers who performed their job with tact, understanding and no small amount of compassion, being generally less corrupt than other public officers.

We have to get used to the idea that the housing manager, the city planner, the youth and community worker, the social worker and the probation officer and numerous other voluntary bodies have more influence on the prevention of crime than the entire police force itself.

Humanity was the inspiration of most of the police pioneers and it proved easy for the early police to take on a social role which won them support and enabled them to tackle the more controversial law enforcement function.

A recent study sponsored by the National Institute of Justice indicated that over 80 per cent of the police chiefs surveyed were either practicing community policing or had plans to do so in the near future.

The police acting in isolation cannot be expected to control the crime problem, similarly nor can the company security department.

Investigators must be able to document every person who has had custody of the evidence from the time it was found on the scene until it is presented in court.

In order to satisfy public expectations of competent response to crime the majority of police forces organize investigative manpower in two ways: specialist units deployed from HQ and personnel deployed on an area basis.

Even efforts to control international conflicts are being seen as problems to be handled by legal processes, and it is "the law," with all its mystery and its presumed integrity, which is viewed as the means through which international conflicts can be controlled.

There emerged in this early period the use of a group of the accuseds peers as the rightful body for determining guilt and innocence.

The bulk of the offenses which occupy the attention of the legal order today were unheard of in early English law, and even laws which have roots in early England, such as the Law of Theft and the Vagrancy Statutes, differ so in their content today that they are more appropriately to be seen as new laws than as continuations of old ones.

The law is a living institution, and it can be described and understood only by systematically studying what is taking place at all phases of the legal process, from the making of laws to the release of law violators.

New laws are passed in an effort to solve perceived problems of prevailing social conditions.

The most important changes of the legal order are not to be found in the types of behaviors which are prohibited or in the types of punishments applied; on the contrary, the most significant changes occur in the institutionalized procedures and the institutionalized conceptions of the basic values of the legal order.

The more traditional arguments for punishment, which suggested the need for "retribution" or the necessity for obtaining "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth," have become much less persuasive in modem legal thinking than they once were.

.In England, for example, criminal laws against prostitution, drug use, homosexuality, and gambling were abolished in part because there was evidence that requiring agencies to enforce these laws led more often to the corruption of the enforcers than to the reduction in the frequency of such "immoral" acts.

The Supreme Court in the United States has recently shown an impressive tendency to look for empirical evidence of the "law in action" as a basis for making legal decisions.

To assess what was in fact taking place in police stations as officers enforced the laws, the Court analyzed the contents of police training manuals to determine the tactics and strategies suggested in these manuals for police to use to obtain confessions.

In recent years we have seen the trend toward an increasing reliance on statutes combined with a gradual shift away from using the criminal law as the sole entity prescribing the handling of persons who have violated the law.

Criminal law represents a sustained effort to preserve important social values from serious harm and to do so not arbitrarily but in accordance with rational methods directed toward the discovery of just ends.

Interest-group theorists view legal norms as simply a device by which persons in positions of power maintain and enhance their advantaged position by using state power to coerce the mass of people into doing what is consistent with the "power elite's" best interests.

It is generally recognized that interest groups play an exceedingly important role in determining the content of legislation dealing with economic matters.

The use of a more direct kind of influence by interest groups can be seen in the behavior of police agencies, both federal and state, in obtaining legislation which expresses their own point of view and which also assists them in developing and expanding their bureaucracies.

The laws are currently viewed by most law enforcers as a necessary device for eliminating the immoral practice of taking drugs and reducing the crime, which is alleged to be associated with addiction.

The single most important characteristic of contemporary Anglo-American society influential in shaping the legal order has been the emerging domination of the middle classes.

From the legal tradition passed down from early England, contemporary Anglo-American law has inherited a legal structure with these outstanding features: a reliance on state power to enforce rules; the view that a violation of any rule is a violation against the state and not simply a matter of personal injury; the principle that the law enforcers should be separated from the lawmakers; the designation of a judge to settle disputes between the state and individual citizenry; and, finally, the use of peers as the ultimate group for deciding disputes.

Substantive law has changed appreciably through the years, and one would scarcely recognize the list of "crimes" which occupied so much legal attention in early England as being of the same general category as those that concern the law today.

The Western world suddenly ceased to regard murder, arson, rape, and theft as regrettable torts which should be compensated by payment to the familysuch and other offenses came to be regarded not only as sins for which a penance was required by the Church, but as crime against society at large to be prosecuted by the community through its chief.

By 1226 an agreement between the criminal and the relatives of a slain man would not avail to save the murderer from an indictment and a sentence of death.

A major issue in criminal law today is: "How can a man be guilty of a crime, possess mens rea, if his actions are determined by sociological and psychological conditions?"

Police officers have a power to stop and search if specific circumstances exist and they have a duty to document their actions and provide reasons if requested.

Where a person has been arrested and is kept in custody, there can be no doubt that the police service owes a duty to take all reasonable care of the detainee.

Besides informants, there are those individuals who share information with police officers for no apparent reason, other than the difficulty they have in not talking about what they have learned.

In gathering information, the police must instruct the citizen that he is not obligated to give any kind of statement or reply to any kind of questions asked except his own identity data.

The police may search a person without a search warrant when arresting a person if there is suspicion that he will dispose of, conceal or destroy articles which are to be taken from him as evidence in criminal proceedings.

The constable noted all the obvious signs of breaking and entering: clothing and paper strewn all over the floors, desks and cupboards opened and the contents pulled out and left where they fell.

A court is an institution that is set up by the government to settle disputes through a legal process.

As you probably know, Congress has passed laws imposing on employers a legal duty not to deny jobs to applicants because of their race, sex, or other characteristics irrelevant to job performance.

The lawyers` task is to bring out those facts that put their clients` case in the most favourable light, but to do so using approved legal procedures.

A legal system, like any other system, needs to be understood as a dynamic process involving a group of functionally related, mutually conditioning, interdependent elements, which together give the system its special character.

Comparative legal analysis can be a relatively simple matter when the jurisdictions being compared share common legal structures, procedural rules and similar ideas about how legal problems ought to be classified.

While suppression tactics (e.g., crackdowns, street sweeps, and juvenile curfews) are among the most frequently used strategies for dealing with juvenile crime, recent developments in criminological theory question their effectiveness.

Alaska, the state with the largest rural land area, is already experimenting with using interactive live video connections to conduct court business without requiring the judge or the accused to travel to a common site.

Those learning to drive a car must be accompanied while driving by a qualified driver, while learner motorcyclists are restricted to riding machines with a limited power output.

Today, a highly concerned society stands increasingly ready to define abuse of the environment in criminal terms.

When the police stop drivers without any suspicion that the particular person has committed an offence, it may well be argued that such a stop is an unreasonable though very temporary - search and seizure.

In a number of cities the police have deployed decoys (officers disguised as potential victims) in an effort to attract and then arrest criminals thought to be responsible for crime problems in a given area.

Posters have been displayed throughout London in a drive to encourage more people to call Scotland Yards specialist officers with information about suspicious people or activities that could be linked to terrorist crime.

The ban on the use of force has now turned into a principle encompassing the whole international community, but unfortunately the resulting limitation on State freedom is beset with loopholes which chiefly affect the enforcement mechanisms of which some members of the world community take full advantage.

The existence of broad areas of dissent or only partial agreement on the one side, and the emergence of certain fundamental standards of behaviour acceptable to all States on the other, makes it useful to draw a distinction between three categories of international norms: universal (principles applicable to all States belonging to the three main groupings referred to above), general (customary rules or norms of multilateral treaties accepted by only two groups of States), and particular (bilateral treaties as well as multilateral treaties, adhered to by one segment only of the international community).

As community corrections professionals, we all agree that there are certain things the public wants and expects: (1) to be safe from violent crime; (2) offenders to be held accountable; (3) offenders to repair the damage they have caused; (4) offenders to get treatment where that makes for safe release from incarceration and (5) public and victim involvement in the decision-making process.

The number of computer disks, CDs, hard drives, mobile phones and laptops seized during computer crime investigations has risen from 5,303 in 2003 to nearly 9,900 last year.

Both before and after Annettes death from complications surrounding her drug induced hypoglycemia, her husband used the Net to garner quite specific information on the drugs implicated in killing her.

The evidence extracted from the computer of a 56-year-old Southland pedophile was sufficient to bring a guilty plea to three charges of rape and 22 other charges of sexual offending involving the two local girls aged seven and eight.

In 1830, Robert Peels model for the new police was that they were to be mainly a crime prevention force, highly visible and not heavily armed to dispel any notion that they were a quasi military body in the pay of the Government.

The last Met officer to be murdered on duty was PC Nina McKay in 1999, who was stabbed while trying to arrest a man who had a history of behaving violently towards the police.

For the vast majority of its history, Met officers have been exposed to violence without having weapons to defend themselves a situation that would not be tolerated today because of modern notions of health and safety at work and risk assessments.

The collars of the first Met uniforms had to be strengthened with a leather strap to protect the constables from garroting a common method used by criminals.

Debates about whether the Metropolitan Police should be armed commenced soon after the force was established and continue to this day.

Internet Service Providers, for example, are under no legal obligation to store information that might help law enforcement agencies investigate electronic crime; or to restrict the flow of indecent or potentially dangerous information.

Some New Zealand ISPs host sites carrying pornography, information on terrorism and how to make bombs.

A Californian website posted three graphic forensic photographs, which appeared to have come from an exhibit booklet produced at the trial in Otara in 1998.

Delays in securing electronic evidence can lead to its destruction as log files, emails and other key data are modified, overwritten or deleted.

Besides the basic investigative steps, electronic investigations require new types of questions to be asked, new clues looked for and new rules followed concerning the collection and preservation of evidence.

Given the Internets unregulated, global nature and the difficulties I mentioned earlier with evidence collection, prevention is becoming increasingly important.

As criminal courts become ever more crowded, prosecutors and judges feel increased pressure to move cases quickly through the system.

And though some still view plea bargains as secret, sneaky arrangements that are antithetical to the people's will, the federal government and many states have written rules that explicitly set out how plea bargains may be arranged and accepted by the court.

After throwing a tantrum in music class, and kicking and hitting a St. Petersburg police officer who was taking him home, the kindergartener, aged 7, was handcuffed and arrested on a charge of battery on a law enforcement officer.

Common law prevented authorities from charging kids under 7, because they were considered too young to form criminal intent.

On a 6 week course called the Initial Crime Investigators Development program you will learn about all serious offences and the skills involved in investigating them and interviewing people involved in the offences.

When a mother is arrested, there is no specific public policy nor routine process to coordinate what happens to the children, even immediately after childbirth.

In American prisons pregnant inmates are often required to be shackled while giving birth, and after delivery, mothers and babies are sometimes separated within hours.

As there are fewer prison facilities for women, an incarcerated woman is usually much further away from her home and is therefore much harder to visit, making the separation even more agonizing for both parent and child.

The first federal control enactment, the Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914, relied upon a then extraordinary extension of the federal tax power to require manufacturers, distributors, and dispensers of opiates and coca products to register with the Treasury Department and to keep records of transactions involving these substances.

In 1908 President Theodore Roosevelt proposed that all powers concerned with the international opium traffic should meet to consider cooperative measures to put an end to it.

Under the Porter Act, addicted persons convicted in federal courts could be sent to the Public Health Service hospitals to serve their terms there in lieu of being committed to ordinary imprisonment.

Enlightened penologists had long been fighting to discourage mandatory minimums by which lawmakers tie the hands of judges so that at least a prescribed minimum sentence must be given to all persons convicted of particular offenses-because they wipe out humane discretion in the sentencing function and play havoc with modern probation and parole systems.

The database of profiles is constantly searched to see, for example, if the profile of a new crime-scene sample can be matched to a known individual.

Over the years since the National DNA Database was established in 1995, the powers of the police to take and retain samples and profiles have gradually increased.

An offence no longer needs to be 'serious' to warrant the compulsory taking of a DNA sample from a suspect, and samples and profiles taken from suspects can be kept indefinitely, even if the individual is never convicted or even charged.

If a person who is not a suspect gives a DNA sample voluntarily in the course of a crime investigation - perhaps because everyone in a particular area has been asked to do so - they will be asked if they consent to have the sample and profile retained on the database after the investigation is over.

The Governments Forensic Science Service researchers are trying to find out whether specific aspects of a person's genetic profile can be used to predict characteristics that might help to identify them, such as hair colour or racial background.

A recent report recommends several measures to improve legal scrutiny of the practice of retaining the DNA samples of people arrested but not charged with any offence.

Automatic Number Plate Recognition was one device used to monitor people going into and out of the City's square mile.

It is believed that soon scientists will be able to create an image of a person from DNA samples.

Tension continued to rise between the Irish Republicans and the British Government and after a plot to free some members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood resulted in a bomb explosion at Clerkenwell Jail, in 1883 the Special Irish Branch of the CID was set up.

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