Grammar Resource Book - Посібник (Левашов О.С.)

Participle ii


Participle II (Past Participle) is the third form of the verb.


Participle II is used like adjectives or adverbs mostly with passive meaning, e.g. The witnesses questioned gave very different opinions. When asked about his plans he said nothing.


All the money of Mrs. Spenlow went to her husband under a will made soon after their marriage.

He had a vision of a small garden planted with sweet-smelling, brightly coloured blossoms.

She led the way out of the overcrowded and smoke-laden room.

Miss Marple was a sweet-faced and some said vinegar-tongued elderly spinster.

Some people may go through a lifetime crushed by the weight of a suspicion that is really unjustified.

Emily French was a strong-willed old lady, willing to pay her price for what she wanted.

He had on cut-off blue jeans, a faded blue T-shirt and old sneakers, with the ties broken and knotted.

She glanced at a creased yellow sheet of paper, covered with her own handwriting, beside the typewriter

A few moments later she appeared, dressed and ready to leave.

A small cabin stood near the bank of the river, surrounded by three or four acres of cleared land.

Though Miss Marple seems mild-mannered, she is one of the best-loved detectives in modern fiction.

Smallpox killed hundreds of millions of victims and survivors were often left crippled, blinded, or badly scarred.

Wellington is the most connected city in New Zealand, with 64\% of households connected to the Internet, Christchurch is second, with 61\% of households connected, followed by Auckland at 59\%.

Both girls had their hair cut just below their ears, held back by a barrette.

It seemed that our brave army was fighting on, though outnumbered.

She dreamed of lavish parties with herself as the admired hostess.

She attributes her great age to a carefully planned diet.

He showed me the trays lined with black velvet and filled with pearls of all shapes and colours and sizes.

Blue-shirted farmers with their trousers rolled up to their knees worked in the rice fields.

She was quick-footed and energetic in all her movements.

Fancy a married woman doomed to live on from day to day without one single quarrel with her husband.

He bowed low when presented to his guests.

Given enough time most barriers are overcome.

He left the room seen by no one.

We live in a world governed by rapid change.

Good things long enjoyed are not easily given up.

The Senate consists of 2 members from each state chosen for 6 years.

Catholic discipline, as defined and sanctioned by the law of the Church, the canon law, was created in the feudal period.

The most widely discussed features of Mars are of course the “canals”.

Light dimmers use a built-in potentiometer with a switch in place of the simple on-off switch now used.


Laws reflect the values held by society.

The Supreme Court consists of nine justices appointed for life by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate.

The implementation of the legislation in no way changes the long-established principle of the operational independence of the police.

The safety of all officers involved in drugs work is of paramount importance.

Juvenile Courts, composed of specially trained magistrates, try most charges against children and young persons under the age of 18 years.

Reported crime in London has dropped by 13\% over the past three years.

The use of technology has played a key role in reduction of time spent on custody records.

If convicted of murder, he will face a sentence to life imprisonment.

The judge granted a new trial because of newly-discovered evidence.

The Common Law is largely judge-made law.

The conversation hovered round undiscovered and unpunished crimes.

Crime is defined as an act of disobedience of the law forbidden under pain of punishment.

The police are the public servants primarily concerned with the enforcement of the criminal law.

The number of cases dealt with in the county courts annually amounts to over 1.5 million.

Two courts sit full-time, while a third sits as and when required by the number of appeals listed.

Taxation cases and company matters involving detailed examination of accounts are unsuitable for trial by jury.

The basic qualification for jury service is that of citizenship as evidenced by inclusion in the Electoral Register.

Confessions obtained by threats of physical punishment, or promises of favour are held inadmissible.

The police service in Great Britain is not a “national” service directly controlled by and responsible to a Secretary of State.

The drug business now accounts for an estimated 5 per cent of Pakistan’s national economy.

The region’s main source of opium, the drug used to make heroin, is lawless, war-torn Afghanistan.

Anti-drug forfeiture is an enforcement strategy supported by federal statutes and some state laws.

Civil forfeiture requires proof only by a preponderance of the evidence rather than proof beyond a reasonable doubt as mandated by the standards of criminal prosecution.

In a recent 15-month period the South Florida Task Force, composed of police agencies from the federal, state and local levels, seized $47 million in airplanes, vehicles, weapons, cash, and real estate.

The quantity of illegally shipped marijuana is constantly growing.

During the 1960s and 1970s British heroin addicts received prescriptions for limited amounts of heroin dispensed through medical clinics.

Of direct concern to the criminal justice system are the crimes committed by those associated with the drug life style.

The name given to criminal justice inquiry on a cross-national level is comparative criminology.

Table 16 provides a summary of crime rates in selected countries for 2004 which is based on reports made to the United Nations by countries listed in the table.

Once arrested, suspects face a high likelihood of conviction.

Prison sentences in China allow for parole after completion of one-half of the time imposed.

Violation of prison rules may result in extended incarceration, or solitary confinement.

Modern Iran provides a contemporary example of a legal system based upon natural law.

The central role played by the Koran in Iranian criminal justice makes the country a modern-day example of the use of natural law as the foundation for a complex legal system.

Known today by its new name, the Police Staff College at Bramshill serves as an international model for police management training.

Traditionally, British police officers have gone on patrol unarmed.

Crown courts are headed by justices appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Lord Chancellor.

The United Nations (UN) comprised of 192 member nations and based in New York City, is the largest and most inclusive international body in the world.

Drug trafficking is not just a problem for the wealthy developed countries.

The United Nations World Crime Surveys compiled annually provide a global portrait of criminal activity.

Crimes against property are most characteristic of nations with developed economies where they constitute 82\% of all reported crime.

The use of technology in the service of criminal investigation is a modern subfield of criminal justice referred to as criminalistics.

Fingerprints, produced by contact with the ridge patterns in the skin on the fingertips, became the subject of intense scientific study in the mid-1840s.

The theories of criminologists that crime is due to poverty or to psychopathic and sociopathic conditions statistically associated with poverty are invalid.

Computer criminals focus on the information stored in computer systems.

Some prosecutions of computer criminals occur under statutes originally designed for other purposes.

Most state computer crime laws impose punishments proportional to the damage done.

Court-ordered confinement which utilizes electronic monitoring and house arrest is an alternative much preferred by offenders.

The well-equipped technologically advanced occupational offender in tomorrow’s world will commit property crimes involving dollar amounts undreamed of only a few decades ago.

The Twelve Tables were a collection of basic rules related to family, religious, and economic life.

Modifications of the law, when gradually induced, promote orderly change in the rest of society.

Prostitution, gambling, homosexuality, “crimes against nature” (sexual deviance), and drug use are but a few crimes classified as “victimless”.

The extent of the injury inflicted in self-defence must be reasonable with respect to the degree of the perceived threat.

“Ignorance of the law is no excuse” is an old dictum still heard today.

Given the size of the problem and the resource implications, the investigative skills deficit cannot be addressed either quickly or cheaply.

When confronted with circumstances indicative of an offence, police officers construct a case theory.

To a large extent, the prohibition laws represented the effective campaign of a small but highly vocal and well-organized interest group convinced of the moral degeneration of the country, which, as they believed, stemmed from the availability of alcoholic beverages.

Much of the alleged increase in serious crimes in recent years is attributable to an increase in the number of autos taken for a joyride rather than to an increase in other, more serious types of offences.

Unauthorized use of others` computers, information, and networks is a crime in most legal jurisdictions in the Western world.

Traffic fatalities account for more than 90 percent of all transportation-related fatalities.

Crime prevention is a recognized, although sometimes disputed, goal of the criminal justice system.

A drug is any substance taken into the body which alters the way the body functions either emotionally, physically or mentally.

The public expects an appropriately timed and technically competent response to crime, whatever its nature.

We have seen in recent years the emergence of administrative boards as institutionalized mechanisms replacing activities previously contained within the legal system.

The social changes that occurred in England during the period studied produced crime and criminal law as we know them today.

The tribe performed the economic, political, religious, and familistic functions performed by separate and distinct insti­tutional structures in a modern society.

Imprisonment was a punishment unknown to the Saxons.

The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 sets out various powers of the police and, associated with those powers, certain duties.

If faced with a complainant who claims a fear of potential violence, the police will need to make assessments of the risk.

If treated with caution and professionalism, informants provide help that can be vital to a major police investigation.

The value of recorded losses through reported computer related crime is increasing.

The use of lay as opposed to professional judges for less serious criminal matters has strong historical roots.

Police officers show concern when asked questions.

Most citizens are really interested in the problems faced by the local police.

There are still many unanswered questions about efficiency, effectiveness, and equity in rural police agencies compared to their urban counterpart.

Today, a whole new class of criminal offences is emerging based upon the notion of environmental damage.

Authorities discovered a tunnel dug by prisoners at a prison in Valencia, located 150 kilometers west of Caracas.

The London-based human rights group Amnesty International says Venezuela’s violence-wracked, overcrowded jails are among the worst in Latin America.

Soldiers have found the bodies of eight of their comrades captured and executed by Muslim extremists during a weekend gun battle.

The federally run hospitals report high recidivism rates among drug addicts treated at these hospitals.

The drug use is one of the most severely punished crimes in the United States.

If paroled, the offender may be released from prison before the original term has been completed, and serve the remainder of the term in the community.

Human rights groups are deeply concerned with the continued torture committed by the Sri Lankan police and the impunity granted to them.

New Zealand Police, the Department of Internal Affairs, the New Zealand Customs Department and nearly a dozen other Government agencies deal with computer related offences.

The total number of burglary cases handled last year was around 660.

Electronic crime is now the most under reported form of criminal behaviour.

The Internet is still a legally unregulated environment.

Crimes committed on electronic devices don’t include collateral or forensic evidence such as eyewitnesses, fingerprints or DNA.

More than 90\% of convictions come from negotiated pleas, which means that less than 10\% of criminal cases result in a trial.

Last year, 2,491 children 10 and under were charged with crimes in Florida according to data provided by the Department of Juvenile Justice, and analyzed by the Times.

Nationally, most of the women in prison are young, unmarried women of color, unskilled with significant substance abuse problems, often incarcerated on drug convictions.

Children with imprisoned parents are at increased risk for poor academic treatment, truancy, gang involvement, early pregnancy, drug abuse and delinquency.

In 1894 opium comprised 14 percent of China's total imports, supplemented by large-scale domestic production.

In 1930s the federal authorities insisted that the U.S. addict population remained stabilized at between 50,000 and 60,000.

By the end of 1972 the figure officially promulgated as the number of persons addicted to drugs in the United States had reached 600,000.

In 1994, three million criminal records held on microfiche were entered onto a national computer called Phoenix.

Exhibits of the Black Museum at Scotland Yard include artifacts and pictures related to the crimes of Jack the Ripper, weapons and early scientific instruments used by the police.

Every police officer undergoes two years’ training as a probationer, which involves both study and practical work, supervised by experienced officers.

The very first policewomen recruited during the First World War had a difficult time.

The jury, made up of twelve men and women, decide whether the accused person is innocent or guilty.

Often frustrated and disappointed by the treatment they received, the victim’s family launched a private prosecution against the three prime suspects in the case.

During 1888, the mutilated bodies of five prostitutes were found in Whitechapel, East London.

Several Al Qaeda terror-money-related arrests were made in various parts of the world.

A synthetic material called Kevlar used in bullet proof vests was developed by the DuPont Company.

Kevlar, patented by Stephanie Kwolek in 1966, is used in bullet proof vests.

The DNA Unit analyzed blood found on the screwdriver.

The Firearms and Toolmarks Unit compared the piece of metal found inside the door of the building with a knife that was later found at the suspect's residence.

The Chemistry Unit's Paints and Polymers subunit compared the paint chips recovered at the crime scene with those taken from a part of the motorcycle submitted as evidence to the lab.

Used in police interrogation and investigation since 1924, the lie detector is still controversial among psychologists, and is not always judicially acceptable.

Forensic medicine became a recognized branch of medicine in the early 19th century.

The day after the Madrid attack police officers back in New York were already conducting modified antiterrorism drills based on the information gleaned by the department's officers in Spain.

Report unauthorized financial transactions to your bank, credit card company, and the police as soon as you detect them.

This report provides a detailed look at police technology.

In 1932, the FBI inaugurated its own laboratory which eventually became recognized as the most comprehensive and technologically advanced forensic laboratory in the world.

When private industry forecasts an assured profit, it quickly provides the police with a technology created or adapted to their needs.

Two thirds of local police departments were using computers in 1993, compared to half in 1990.

One of the most important computer-based innovations in American policing during the past 30 years was the advent of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), administered by the FBI.

The National Crime Information Center, administered by the FBI is a central computerized index of fugitives and stolen property.

Almost all police agencies spend most of their budgets on personnel and have relatively little left over for equipment purchases.

Illegally concealed weapons are a threat to both law enforcement and the general public.

Performed correctly, DNA analysis is impartial and infallible.

The first multi-shot pistol, introduced by Samuel Colt, went into mass production in 1850s.

Alphonse Bertillon, a French criminologist, applied techniques of human body measurement used in anthropological classification to the identification of criminals.

In 1901 Scotland Yard adopted a fingerprint classification system devised by Sir Edward Richard Henry.

Tried and abandoned or not widely adopted are wooden, rubber and plastic bullets; dart guns adapted from the veterinarian's tranquilizer gun that inject a drug when fired; an electrified water jet; a baton that carries a 6,000-volt shock; chemicals that make streets extremely slippery; strobe lights that cause giddiness, fainting and nausea; and the stun gun that, when pressed to the body, delivers a 50,000-volt shock that disables its victim for several minutes.

Pepper spray, widely used by the police as a force alternative, was first developed in 1982.

Many US police departments are using computers for such relatively sophisticated applications as criminal investigations, dispatch, and manpower allocation.

An enhanced police call collection system will allow checks of address and simplified data gathered from distressed callers who are often confused or anxious.

Local police departments with a 911 system employed 89 percent of all officers in 1993, compared with 65 percent in 1990.

In 1993, 55 percent of all local police departments were maintaining computerized files on arrests compared to 39 percent in 1990.

A full-fledged community policing program incorporates: (1) community-based crime prevention; (2) a reorientation of patrol activities; (3) increased accountability to local communities; and (4) decentralized command.

The second reason cited for the growth of crime laboratories was the demand for scientific examination created by the tremendous upsurge in drugs and drug-related crime in the mid-1960s.

According to one researcher, the chokehold was effectively used on the more than 800 people arrested every day.

Considered more potent than CN gas, CS gas causes pain in the nose, throat and chest, nausea and vomiting.

The baton is still one of the most widely used police tools.

Custody Visiting is a voluntary scheme established, administered and supported by the Police Authority, in line with guidance from the Home Office.

Given the concern over potential civil liberties violations in undercover work, all special police unit procedures were reviewed by the department’s general counsel, the U.S. Attorney, and the American Civil Liberties Union.

Academicians, police investigators, politicians, researchers, and residents of crime-ridden neighborhoods all have a mental picture based on their experiences of what constitutes a gang.

A gang is a group of people who form an allegiance based on various social needs and engage in acts injurious to public health and morals.

Career criminals continue their criminal enterprises even while incarcerated.

The most revolutionary discoveries about women and aggression involve violence toward loved ones.

The National Family Violence Surveys, conducted in 1975 and 1985 with a total of 8,145 married couples, showed that 12.4\% of women had assaulted their spouses, compared to 12.2\% of men.

The statistics show that arrests of women for violent crimes increased 90\% between 1985 and 1999, compared to 43\% for men.

A police officer suffered only minor bruises when fired at from a passing car.

Police Federation has drawn attention to the harmful effects of violence shown in films and on TV.

The murder case has baffled experienced detectives.

A newly formed group of specially trained officers will investigate serious race crimes across England, Scotland and Wales, regardless of force boundaries.

The victim was given an alcoholic drink laced with a drug.

The plane was taken over by three masked hijackers.

Lately, tens of thousands of consumers have unknowingly had their credit card details intercepted by high-tech criminal gangs.

All the corpses were found wrapped tightly in the traditional garment.

Free legal assistance to persons of limited means has existed at least in a few courts since the thirteenth century.

Why isn’t a police officer involved in a death in custody automatically suspended?

Most officers will respond effectively when confronted with a riot or a strike.

In its original and ideal form, parole was a benefit bestowed on a prisoner for good behaviour in prison.