Grammar Resource Book - Посібник (Левашов О.С.)

Participle i







being invited


having invited

having been invited


Participle I (Present Participle) is used like adjectives or adverbs., e. g. Going home I saw children playing in the garden. Having lost his key he couldn’t open the door.


Glancing down the street, she saw a figure rapidly approaching.

Sir Henry Clithering, ex-Commissioner of Scotland Yard, sat silent, twisting his moustache – or rather stroking it – and half smiling, as though at some inward thought that amused him.

He moved along, waving good-bye to Dr. Nuttley, and I followed, clutching my handkerchief.

I looked across the blinding glare of ocean disappearing into the horizon.

He stepped to the window beside the desk and stood breathing on the glass, watching the expending circlet of mist, staring down through the autumn night at the avenue, stretching eleven stories below.

Turning, he saw a sheet of white paper drifting to the floor, and another sheet, yellow, moving towards the window in the current of air flowing through the narrow opening.

We quickly established a rapport, discovering our common passion for politics.

Depending on what it is we are trying to remember, the brain works in different ways.

He came back at around seven in the morning, having found nothing.

Having found the place with some difficulty, she went into the doorway.

In the fading light the blue boats looked silver, like live silver fish floating there.

Heavy rains continued through the night, causing the river to rise.

Reading a book on Brazil, she learned many facts about the country and its people.

Passing through a village, I saw a young girl washing her hair in a pail of water.

I watched a young man bicycling down a country lane.

As you awake into another warm spring day, you hear little children laughing and dogs barking outside.

Having listened to your views we have set a number of particular objectives.

Water from melting snow is gently falling from the cliff top to the canyon floor.

In the dim light emanating from the airplane’s door he caught sight of a man.

Having traversed seven hundred miles he was now traveling toward the border of the United States.

Janet heard very little being absorbed in her own reflections.

There was a tiny smile playing about the corners of his mouth.

Being left alone we kept silence for some time.

Having been discovered the comet disintegrated a few days later.

The sports park plan being discussed will provide the city with a new recreation area.


The attorney had argued that the prosecutor had no physical evidence linking the suspect to the murder.

Video cameras record the actual drug transactions being observed.

There was a slight rise in the number of road accidents involving serious injury.

Every court of appeal consists of between 3 and 15 judges depending upon the amount of work in the circuit.

The numerous risks for police officers range from the condition of those being arrested to the grave risk from firearms.

The Court of Appeal consists of two divisions: one exercising civil jurisdiction and one criminal.

In its report the Royal Commission proposed sweeping reforms.

Any officer using threats or violence against a prisoner is liable to disciplinary proceedings.

Pakistan’s booming drug trade, mostly involving heroin, is worth about 2.5 billion dollars annually.

Pakistan has become a large drug consuming nation in recent years.

Rough coastline makes detection of drugs entering the country very difficult.

The total flow of illegal heroin and cocaine entering the country annually is less than 20 tons.

The Netherlands have no crime category for “robberies”, counting them as thefts.

A crime problem of growing concern is juvenile delinquency.

Crown courts are recent additions to the English System of criminal justice, having been created in 1971.

By the 1920s fingerprint identification was in use in police departments everywhere, having quickly replaced the anthropometric system of Bertillon.

The new Computer Crime Bill created sweeping amendments to  the existing law.

Psychiatric testimony is expensive, sometimes costing thousands of dollars per day for one medical specialist.

All types of behaviour, including transgressions of varying degrees of seriousness, are much more visible in the slums than anywhere else in the city.

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for persons ages 5 through 27.

If a constable was quick enough he might stop a crime being committed.

Law enforcement executives changing from a traditional, professional model of police work must overcome many hurdles.

The conflict between church and state played a major part in the history of England for several centuries, coming to a head during the reign of Henry II.

Caesar and Tacitus describe the Anglo-Saxons as tribal units oc­cupying the territory of North Germany.

As a society feudalism refers to a system of personal dependence, with a military class occupying the higher levels in the social scale, and with a subdivision of rights in real property corresponding to this system of personal dependence.

As a legal system feudalism means a body of institutions creating obligations of service and duty—a military service on the part of the vassal and an obligation of protection on the part of the lord with regard to the vassal.

In October of 1992, Russia released secret documents detailing the Soviet massacre of 20,000 Poles in 1940.

How safe do you feel being outside and alone in your neighbourhood at night?

Many of the most serious crime problems facing rural and small-town police are those facing urban police, such as drugs, juvenile crime, and spouse abuse.

Each court of appeal consists of between 3 and 15 judges depending upon the amount of work in the circuit. 

No statistical data, however startling, indicate in itself the far-reaching ramifications of the addiction problem.

Statutes outlawing social order offences are rooted in the notion of social harm.

The state of Pennsylvania recently enacted a recycling law which mandates stiff sanctions, including fines and jail sentences for violators.

A 1 million pounds reward is offered for information leading to the successful prosecution of terrorist criminals.

Each Parliament session usually lasts for one year – normally beginning and ending in October or November.

The principle of effectiveness permeates the whole body of rules making up international law.

Forensic science involves many different disciplines including pathology, chemistry, biology and handwriting analysis.

There is a growing private sector capability in the area of electronic security and investigation.

An increasing number of police departments are requiring some college course work for employment consideration.

The committee produced a report, running to twenty-one pages, dealing with treatment of drug-addicts but consisting principally of a diatribe against the clinic experiments of 1920.

The Narcotic Control Act of 1956 raised minimum and maximum penalties for all drug offenses involving consumption and sale.

The National Criminal Intelligence Service gathers information on many different offenders including drug traffickers, money launderers, various criminal groups and football hooligans.

There are Schools Watch schemes operating across the United Kingdom.

Using the latest pager technology, schools keep in contact with each other and the police.

The law is a complex system with many different branches including civil and criminal matters.

A security guard making his hourly rounds at the Smith Federal Building in Washington, D.C., noticed light coming from the building's back door.

Realizing the potential danger of the situation, the security guard carefully retraced his steps and called for assistance.

The Metropolitan Police Bomb Squad shot a water cannon at potential explosive devices, effectively rendering them safe.

While combing the grounds for additional clues, the police discovered a tiny piece of metal inside the door.

Thieves broke into the royal tomb, getting away with unbelievable treasures.

Forensic scientists convert clues to crime, using the latest technology into evidence admissible in a court of law.

A group of Police Department analysts quickly built a profile of the potential terrorist, drawing on confidential informants, surveillance and links with other law enforcement agencies around the world.

The New York police department now has its own liaison officers working full time in Britain, France, Israel, Canada and Singapore, all of them filing daily reports on developments there.

There are now five analysts in the anti-terrorist department, working alongside Arabic and Farsi linguists, dozens of police detectives and liaison officers from other city and state agencies.

The analysts in the New York police earn $55,000 to $75,000 a year, depending on their experience.

Terrorism experts say the New York analysts are as good as those being hired by the federal government.

The Crime Commission was established in the 1960s in response to rapidly rising crime rates and urban disorders.

By the mid-1990s, police departments employing 95 percent of the nation's police officers had 911 systems.

Departments using computers employed 95 percent of all local police officers in 1993.

An important technological advance benefiting the police in their daily work has been the development of pepper spray as a force alternative.

Use of pepper spray has led to some lawsuits and media attention raising questions about its possible lethality.

Liability inhibits development of non-lethal and other emerging police technologies.

The police or manufacturers serving the police market adapted widely available commercial technologies to police needs.

The new weapon temporarily incapacitates an individual or group without lasting physiological damage.

The sheriff’s office is nearly paper-free, operating on an intra-office e-mail system and the Criminal Investigative Support System (ACISS) database, which contains almost all relevant case information dating back ten years.

In 1967, the Crime Commission produced a 308-page report “The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society”, that offered more than 200 recommendations, dealing with police technology.

What patrol officers do in a modern police department is almost wholly determined by incoming calls for service.

A majority of departments serving a population of 100,000 or more used computers for fleet management, manpower allocation, and research purposes during 1993.

Incidents involving police use of force are repeated daily in towns and cities throughout the country.

The officer's decision regarding the level of force must be judged within circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving.

In a chokehold the officer places the subject's neck in the crook of his arm and puts pressure on the carotid artery, thereby restricting the blood flow to the brain and causing the subject to "pass out."

A patrol officer found a sleeping driver in his car with the engine running, headlights on and the car stereo playing loudly.

Offences involving firearms have risen by 40 per cent since last year.

New regulations of the Investigatory Powers Bill will stop criminals hiding behind technological advances.

Persons acting under color of law include prisons guards, law enforcement officials, judges, care providers in public health facilities, and others acting as public officials.

The government acting through Parliament can create laws which apply retroactively.

Sometimes features indicating criminal law have to be balanced against factors indicating civil law.

Decisions of magistrates’ courts are not binding on any court.

Persons being subjected to body search by State officials, or medical personnel acting at the request of the state, should only be examined by persons of the same sex.

In some prison systems staff guarding the perimeter of the prison carry firearms.

The escaping prisoner presented an immediate threat to the life of other persons.

Prisoners often require access to lawyers, and other professional persons, including members of non-governmental organizations and human rights monitors.

“Victimless” crimes include drug use, alcohol abuse, and prostitution and other sex acts between consenting adults.

Preventive patrol, the backbone of a municipal department’s activities, consists of officers driving or walking through a geographic area of responsibility.

He served 13 years of his life sentence, being released in 1995.

The criminals burgled a flat in South London, stealing jewelry and furs.

The criminal could remember nothing of the murder on account of amnesia resulting from the injuries he received at the time of capture.

Obstruction to the body’s respiratory function, reducing or cutting off the air-supply to the lungs, results in asphyxia.

At the beginning of the trial the presiding judge informs the jury of the nature of their duties during the trial.

The law is not a still pool, but rather a running stream, carrying society’s hopes, and reflecting all its values, and hence requiring a constant attention to its tributaries.

Many laws governing our behaviour are not written down anywhere.

The laws of all European countries, including France and England, were much influenced by Roman codes.

Family law deals with the relationships of persons living together as spouses.

The bill proposed sweeping changes of the country’s laws, including some highly controversial provisions.

The police officer observed the suspect running quickly away from a residence, jumping in a car, and leaving the scene at high speed.

A citizen can make an arrest if he finds a person committing an indictable offence.

A citizen may rely on two sections of the Criminal Code when preventing the commission of an offence and detaining persons committing a breach of the peace.

On October 23, 1998, Constable Forsythe observed a car being driven in a somewhat dangerous manner near the river.

While waiting for his first appearance in court, the accused was consulting with his lawyer.

Suspicious communications or financial transactions will be subject to increasing scrutiny and congressional oversight in the coming years.

Telecommunications and Internet firms gather the information being requested by government investigators.

Many Western nations are all too familiar with groups promoting political change through violent means.

Every officer in the department, when stopping a car or spotting a fake ID, needs to think terrorism first.

Cars and trucks have been used to devastating effect in terrorist attacks around the world.

 Two illegal aliens were in custody, presumably facing murder charges.

Absolute Participial Construction


Everyone in the village knew the major and that he was a widower, his wife having died a year before.

All the petrol being exhausted, the truck could move no longer.

Every major investigation now has an electronic component to it,  people using mobile phones, laptops, Palm Pilots and other electronic equipment as a matter of course in their daily lives.

Baker was still refusing to pay as he left the post office, with Kitty

        rushing after him.

Slowly he slid to the floor, blood spilling in crimson cataracts over his expensive shirt front.

The market decentralizes power right down to every individual consumer, so that a grand, continuous general election is in progress the whole time, a vote being cast whenever a share or a security of an article or a service is bought and sold.


Each judge delivers a separate judgment, the verdict being by majority.

The case proceeds in the normal way, payments being made into and out of the Legal Aid Fund.

There were a number of reasons for the opposition to the new legislation, perhaps the most important being the threat to personal liberty.

Hostility to the early police was immediate and universal, public opinion being swept along by a malicious press campaign.

The regulation of an immense number of vehicles and pedestrians using the streets of London presented a huge problem to nineteenth century policemen, special occasions like boat races and royal visits causing particular difficulties.

The monarchy is the most ancient institution in the United Kingdom, with a continuous history stretching back over a thousand years.

The content of the legal system has also changed through the death of many laws which at one time occupied a central place in the legal order, laws that provided penal sanctions for indebtedness being but one exam­ple of this attrition.

The jury was out for less than an hour, one member asking for a point

of clarification.

The police are the public and the public are the police, the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.

The victim fell to the floor, his life ebbing with the blood that gushed

from the wound.