Grammar Resource Book - ( ..)

Miscellaneous tenses

Law

A walker who had been missing for 11 days was rescued by the police from an old mine on the Mendip Hills after his cries were heard by a farmer who was passing by.

The U.S. Coast Guard policy of zero tolerance led to the seizure of multimillion-dollar vessels when even small amounts of drugs were found on board.

Nations report offences according to the legal criteria by which arrests are made.

Butyrskaya prison was constructed in 1771 and there has been very little refurbishment since then.

Drug culture has been studied, the impact of drug abuse on society is becoming clear, and the economic and human cost of drugs has been charted.

Computers have dramatically altered the rate at which information is being produced.

The Bertillon system of identification made the assertion that certain bodily aspects, such as eye colour, skeletal size and shape, and ear form, did not change substantially after physical maturity had been reached.

Polygraph and voiceprint identification techniques are still being refined and have not yet won wide acceptance.

One of the first successful adaptations of the DNA technique to criminal prosecution occurred in 1987 when 32-year-old Robert Melias was convicted of rape.

Recent studies have shown that about 40\% of federal white-collar offenders are sentenced to prison versus 54\% of non-white-collar criminals.

While human beings have insulted the environment since before the dawn of history, it has only been in this century, as our dependence on the planet has become progressively obvious, that such activities have been ascribed criminal status.

Some computer criminals seek personal riches, while others are attracted to the offence by the technical challenge which it represents.

Common law was given considerable legitimacy upon the official declaration that it was the law of the land by the English King Edward the Confessor in the eleventh century.

Most legal codes are influenced strongly by cultural conceptions of right and wrong and encompass many behaviours which are not immediately and directly harmful to anyone except those who are involved in them.

Vagrancy laws, popular in the early part of the twentieth century, have generally been invalidated because they did not specify what act violated the law.

A murder attempt is a serious crime, even though the act was not accomplished.

The principle of legality is concerned with the fact that a behaviour is not criminal if no law exists which defines it as such.

Prior to the nineteenth century the insanity defence was nonexistent and insane people who committed crimes were punished in the same way as other law violators.

Alibi is different from all of the other defences because it is based upon the premise that the defendant is truly innocent.

Convictions which are set aside because of some error in proceedings at a lower court level will permit a retrial on the same charges.

It is not widely known that a range of factors renders video recordings problematic as evidence.

Where a person is lawfully detained for the purpose of a search, but no search in the event takes place, the detention will not thereby have been rendered unlawful.

If a suspect has been arrested, the police officer presents the suspect to the custody officer.

When a murder or extremely serious or serial rape is reported, typically uniform officers attend the scene and await the arrival of officers from the Major Crime Unit.

Forget what you were told at training school, well show you how things really are.

In England criminal laws against prostitution, drug use, homosexuality, and gambling were abolished in part because there was evidence that these laws led more often to the corruption of the enforcers than to the reduction in the frequency of such immoral acts.

Judges do occasionally make decisions which contradict statutes, but more and more the statutes are viewed by the judiciary as the ultimate source of authority, and the judges role has been more and more circumscribed with respect to its legislative ability.

Although the juvenile court retains a judge, this is in most cases simply an anachronism with little real consequence for the functioning of the court; the juvenile court is manned and manipulated, for better or for worse, by professional social workers whose tie to the legal order is only tangential.

With the historical emergence of the middle class as the dominant group, we have inherited a source of legal changes and also a source of inherent conflicts which are played out in the arena of the law.

The English common law is based on the assumption that there is a higher moral order which is a part of the law of nature and from which positive laws are derived.

Although Church and State had been separated under William, the separation was not complete.

The notion of crime contains within it the notion of sin, for which punishment is required.

Laws are written in language, and language is inherently ambiguous, so that no one has the copyright on the interpretation of what a word, much less a string of words, means.

Laws are notoriously resistant to change, and this is reflected in the large numbers of laws which are on the books at any point in time but which are rarely enforced.

Middle-class affluence affords a shield against public scrutiny which is not enjoyed by members of the lower class.

One of the principle criteria by which the police are judged is the number of arrests they make in comparison with the number of offences that are reported to them.

The vast majority of the auto thefts are more accurately described as joyrides and usually involve cases when adolescents take an automobile for a short period of time and go for a ride with it.

Officers of the new Metropolitan Police were thrown into rivers, and kicked to death and when a constable was murdered in a riot in 1833 the jury returned a verdict of justifiable homicide.

Scotland Yard men were selected from the most intelligent and successful constables, as detectives needed skills which the ordinary policemen did not possess.

The Prime minister is appointed directly by the Crown and is the leader of the political party which has the majority of seats in the House of Commons.

From the time of William until the reign of Henry II a quasi-legal structure prevailed which was strongly influenced by the tribal heritage of England prior to the Norman Conquest.

In early England, punishment for even minor offences was exceedingly severe: in medieval England peasants were hanged when they stole a few eggs.

More and more the law is being structured and judged according to how well it meets certain explicit societal goals.

More often than not, the views of the groups in power will be expressed in criminal legislation simply because their perspective prevails among those who make the laws.

It is also true that laws are passed which reflect the interests of the general population and which are antithetical to the interests of those in power.

Although we have expanded the size of the interest groups which shape the law, it remains the case that groups which lack effective political and economic power are the ones which are most affected by the changes in the legal order.

The Iberians and the Celts were organized along tribal lines, and there is no evidence of a social structure other than the tribal structure.

In Anglo-Saxon tribes the king was elected from a given hereditary line, and he was the king of a tribe, never of a territorial unit.

The warriors settled the land, which they were granted as rewards for their military service.

If a slaying occurred within a family group no feud took place, and the offender was either ignored or exiled.

It is almost two centuries since the first police forces were created in England and in that time the police service has become an integral part of our community.

At that time that area of London was infested with powerful gangs who extorted protection money from tradesmen.

That morning a patrol policeman found the body of a man who had been killed by a number of heavy blows to the head and his face had been slashed with a knife.

The body had been dragged ten yards from a footpath where bloodstains marked the murder spot.

The current English judicial structure has matured over centuries and is viewed from many areas of the world as a crucial structure to an orderly society, as an irreplaceable backbone to a just system.

Before the age limit of 70 was placed on superior court judges, many served to a very old age, for example Lord Halsbury sat nearly until his death at 93.

Grand jury indictments are most often used for felonies, which are the most serious crimes, such as bank robberies.

Serious consideration of "intermediate" punishments like community service, house arrest, intensive probation, treatment programs for drugs, alcohol and mental illness, and electronic monitoring of movement has been hindered by the perception that they are therapeutic rather than punitive.

Some jurisdictions are still using parole and probation instruments that were developed years ago, have been in their policy and procedures for years, are not being followed and have never been validated for their population.

I will reflect on the beliefs and practices of John Augustus, the man whom we all refer to as the Godfather of Probation in America and perhaps in other countries around the world, and see if the same principles are being followed today.

A notorious gangster Adam Richetti was captured and went to the gas chamber in Missouri in 1938 after lengthy appeals.

In 1905 fingerprint identification was introduced into the Chicago police department but it had overcome substantial initial opposition in the department by 1910, when the Illinois Supreme Court upheld fingerprints as admissible evidence.

On April 4, 2001, McNally was charged with violation of his parole after he didnt report to his parole agent.

The police inform that no further arrests have been made at this stage and none else has appeared in court in connection with the investigation.

Bogus caller thefts have increased dramatically in recent years, but there are signs that the upward trend is being reversed.

Information about the offence, such as the description of the burglar and the method he used, will be fed into an Operation Grizzlybear intelligence database, which will be accessible forcewide.

I didn't really understand what was going on when the police showed up. The officer never really gave us an explanation as to why we were being arrested.

The terrorists were caught by surprise and gave up without resistance.

Polish forces from the multinational division were alarmed by the local Iraqi (Shia-Muslims) civilians, who were witnesses of the attack.

The last successful anti-terror operation in recent time occurred in February, when a group of nine terrorists were arrested in the desert near Kerbala.

Although some terrorists attacks were also conducted against Ukrainian policemen there has been until now only one fatality.

I do not worry about my reputation, or the fact that for the rest of my life, even if charges are dropped tomorrow, many people will cringe reflexively whenever they hear my name.

We charged Marcy stateside, and when he was convicted he went to Rudyard instead of the federal overnight camp he had been counting on, a place with a salad bar and tennis courts.

The victim had not fallen back completely; her right arm was rigidly extended toward the wheel, and her head was pinned against the seat at a hopeless, impossible angle.

The suspect had obviously spoken to his lawyer and was answering only as questions were asked.

She was grabbed by a third member of the gang, who twisted her arm tightly behind her and wrapped a huge arm around her throat.

As you know, the only cases we read about from the Supreme Court are the ones where the defendant at trial was convicted and has appealed.

The anatomy charts were placed on easels before the jury, and the expert took a plastic pellet that represented a bullet, and moved it ever so slowly through the body.

By the time he was rushed to the police station, he had regained his senses and had apologized sufficiently to the angry cops.

The day after the bombing he had been charged with two counts of capital murder, so the gas chamber scenario occupied his thoughts.

Millions of electronic transactions are conducted every day and the vast majority take place routinely and without criminal involvement.

In 1881 PC Frederick Atkins was shot three times and killed when he disturbed a burglar during a routine visit to a large house on his beat in Kingston on the outskirts of the Metropolitan Police District.

The police spokesman added that the suspect had not yet been charged in the case because authorities had not interviewed him.

Three times the number of women have been put behind bars in the last ten years, over 75 percent of whom have children.

Ten percent of children with mothers in prison are sent to foster homes, while the majority of children live with grandparents.

Unfortunately, prisons are most often located in remote rural areas and are inaccessible to families without cars.

In 1966 Congress passed the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act, which in practice was so severely limited that it has never had much effect.

Doctors who prescribed methadone were usually threatened and harassed by the police, and often their patients were intimidated and their sources of funds attacked.

A body, which police suspect is Thomas Burns, was found inside the car, but they still havent positively identified the body.

Britain joined Interpol in 1946 and the office of Interpol, Great Britain, was set up in 1949.

Each police dog is carefully matched to a handler with whom it lives as part of the family.

When a police force was first introduced, it was not popular.

Hundreds of crimes have been solved with the help of Crimestoppers and only 2\% of callers ever seek the reward.

The very first policewomen were often resented by their male colleagues, who believed that police was men's work.

In 1868 Michael Barratt was hanged for a bomb explosion outside Clerkenwell Jail which killed twelve people.

It is widely accepted that Stephen Lawrence died as a result of a horrific racist attack.

The racist attack on Stephen Lawrence was followed by a high profile public inquiry that resulted in a major change in police race relations.

The victims family made a formal complaint about the way the original inquiry by the police had been handled.

After the McPherson Inquiry published its critical report on February 24th, 1999, police chiefs acknowledged that public confidence in the police had been shaken by racism and that the integrity of the police service was being questioned.

Paint chips were recovered next to the door where the suspect leaned his motorcycle.

Crimes are solved with the use of pathological examinations that gather fingerprints, palm prints, footprints, tooth bite prints, blood, hair and fiber samples.

In the 19th century it was observed that contact between someone's hands and a surface left barely visible marks.

The analyst program, which several terrorism experts said was the first of its kind in the country, was conceived by New York Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly in late 2001 as one phase of a broad antiterrorist effort that has already transformed the department.

The name polygraph comes from the fact that the lie detector records several different body responses simultaneously as the individual is questioned.

Many technologies the police use were developed for general commercial purposes.

Men and institutions remain free only when freedom is founded upon respect for moral and spiritual values and the rule of law.

A proper balance between public order and individual freedom is an issue that has been debated for centuries.

His number-one suspicion from the start has been that the judge was killed by someone she convicted.

He suspected he was being followed by the FBI.

John has been granted immunity and will testify before the grand jury next week.

The prosecutors will immediately advise the defense when the evidence is located.

Usually soap and water will remove the oils, but there are cases in the literature where fingerprints have been identified even after the object was rinsed in soap and water.

Their lawyers confirmed that each had been contacted by the FBI.

There is some speculation the trial will be postponed and/or moved to another county.

The riot on Thursday had not been their fault, he explained, yet they were being blamed for it.

Without a doubt, the fragments we found at the crime scene were fired from an M-16.

The police always send a police officer immediately when a crime is being committed.

The judicial strength of the Committee is such that its decisions are treated with great respect.

A quorum of three is necessary and as a rule only one judgement is delivered.

The court does not increase the sentence against which appeal is being made.

These courts had served their purpose well and were trusted.

An indictment is merely a document, which sets out the crime(s) with which a person is charged.

An assessment of the applicants means will be carried out by the committee, which reports to the court.

Any doubt which exists as to the means of the defendant is resolved in his favour.

Although the words decriminalization and legalization are often used interchangeably, there is a significant difference.

The current war on drugs is already a failure and will be remembered as one of historys follies.

Since some people are attracted to anything taboo, legalization could, in fact, reduce the demand for drugs.

In 1991 a British appeals court freed six men who had been convicted in 1975 of a bomb attack on two Birmingham pubs.

It has been estimated that magistrates` courts handle 98\% of all criminal cases in Great Britain.

Close ties between those who govern and those who police are viewed as a sign of political corruption.

A basic assumption of sociological jurisprudence is that law is related to institutional history and change.

Democracy is founded on the principle that observance of the law is the eternal safeguard of liberty and defiance of the law is the surest road to tyranny.

As soon as we entrust the right of disobedience to everyone many just laws will be disobeyed.

Just because a person has been arrested does not mean he has lost his rights.

The police department identification division keeps a digit-by-digit record of every person who has ever been printed.

The police looked round the house and discovered that all traces of blood had been removed, and the house thoroughly cleaned.

All the rooms were in disorder and in some of them pieces of jewellery and money had been thrown on the floor.

Officer Wensley joined the Metropolitan Police in 1888, and was appointed to the CID in 1895, and retired at the end of July 1929 with the rank of Chief Constable.

When the likelihood of the imposition of sanctions was increased, violation of the regulations decreased.

Authorities state most of the equipment was stolen or bought illegally through the use of fraudulent credit cards.

Most volunteer night watchmen, who patrolled the city, were traditionally drawn from society's unemployables.

Gang leaders emerged from the ranks of older gang members who had been stabbed or shot in gang fights or released from the youth authority or prison.

Vietnamese gangs which emerged in the late 1970s were followed by Laotian and Cambodian gangs in the early 1980s.

It was not until the late 1980s that the Skinheads were identified as the primary source of white street gang violence in this state.

The gang attire in and of itself does not mean that more crimes are also being committed in a particular neighborhood.

There are many jurisdictions where the instruments of probation and parole are not properly utilized, if used at all.

The FBI received information which indicated that Miller had been involved in an altercation with a henchman of Longie Zwillman, head of New Jersey's underworld mob, in Newark.

Superintendent Wilson moved his own offices, which had been located in City Hall, to the police headquarters.

Russian Interior Minister said that three men had been arrested on July 19, and that a length of flexible metal presumably the murder weapon had been seized.

The lawyer from the prosecuting attorney told the judge that the case was dismissed.

The clothes the criminal wore that night were discarded with the murder weapon.

The Assistants were often in the dark about the identity of informants, particularly those who had been promised no testimonies in future.

I suspect I'm being watched very closely.

The police lieutenant walks away, returns to the pier, where another body is being pulled from the water.

According to Miami Beach police, the criminal was confronted by a detective in a building that is also home to a nightclub, jewelry store and a gym.

More than 4,500 kids 11 and under were charged with crimes in Florida during the fiscal year that ended in June and many were arrested more than once.

Few of us know much about how the police resources are used and managed.

In 1999 a new radio communications system was introduced in the British police that works just about anywhere.

It wasn't until the 1930s that forensic science was established as an important part of crime detection in this country.

Special Branch is a low-profile section of the police force but something is known about its early days thanks to the autobiography of one of its most famous members - John Sweeney.

Some visitors are admitted to the Crime Museum at Scotland Yard but these are usually people whose work or interests are directly linked to the study of crime.

The Tyburn Tree scaffold stood in London for two hundred years before it was demolished in 1783.

The truncheons which were used by the first official police force in 1829 were about twenty inches long and were carried in the tail of an officer's coat.

One examiner determined that the suspicious flashlight had been modified into an explosives device.

Hundreds of drug courts are now operating in the US, and a significant fall in drug crime has been reported.

A man was denied bail yesterday after a district attorney disclosed that according to international law enforcement officials he had been a member of a gang.

The Association of Chief Police Officers admitted that justice system had never been perfect, and far too many people had been acquitted to the danger of public.

A police officer was wearing a bullet-proof vest when he was hit with a bullet on Sunday.

A man was arrested after his lover told the police he had hit her.

Police found the victims who, fortunately, had not been sexually assaulted

As soon as the former MI 5 officer arrives by ferry at Dover he will be arrested by metropolitan police special branch officers.

An arrest warrant is usually issued after higher authorities give permission to detain a suspect.

Along with a gun and a badge, every Los Angeles police officer is issued with a 999 key which allows him access to all the police stations in the city.

The resident was not injured in the shooting but has suffered a shock.

A license plate number of the vehicle the offender fled in was recorded by a security camera.

The detectives discovered that three bombs had not reached their destinations because too few stamps had been put on them.

Police authorities said five shots had been fired from a .22-caliber handgun.

The man claims he was victimized during his detention in custody.

They were released next day only after the man signed a statement that they had been treated in accordance with the law.

Not only do they want the two hundred thousand dollars they're not entitled to, they also have sued my client for ten million dollars in extra damages.

Inferior court jurisdiction is limited both geographically and according to the nature of subject matter, and includes those civil and criminal courts which decide the vast majority of disputes, the county and magistrates courts, respectively.

Much of what has been written about juvenile delinquency and gang involvement in popular publications and academic journals suggests that adolescent crime is primarily an urban problem.

Some crimes, such as drug abuse, prostitution, gambling, and pornography, are sometimes referred to as victimless crimes, because the harm they cause is not readily identifiable at the individual level.

Damages to the wildlife of Alaska were estimated as high as 5 billion dollars, and the Exxon Company, in an agreement which was later rejected by a federal court, paid 1 billion dollars in restoration fees.

As ecological awareness is expending, new prohibitions are legislated and new offences created.

A Parliament has a maximum duration of five years, but in practice general elections are usually held before the end of this term.

The Federal Narcotics Bureau has increased its effort at control, and the formal sanctions have been drastically increased in severity to the extent that under certain federal statutes a person who violates the drug laws will be sentenced to prison for six years with no possibility of parole.

Although political and military alliances have occasionally been set up or a strong convergence of interests between two or more members of the international community has evolved, this state of affairs has not been consolidated into a permanent power structure.

The type of offence were mostly seeing is where new technology has been used in the commission of traditional types of crime, such as fraud, drug dealing, extortion, harassment and pedophilia.

As in most other police departments nationwide, police officers and detectives were bogged down with administrative detail and reports, which cut down on their time on the streets.

The Bertillon system remains in vogue in North America and Europe until it is replaced at the turn of the century by the fingerprint method of identification.

The big push to computerization started in the early 1970s, when lots of money was being spent.

The second level of the use-of-force continuum is termed "passive resistance," in which the subject offers no physical threat toward the officers but is unresponsive to their demands.

Some police departments have banned the use of flashlights as impact weapons in response to incidents in which citizens or officers were injured.

Nunchakus come from the martial arts arena and are used by officers who combine these skills with their defensive tactics.

The Metropolitan Police Authority has called for a scrutiny of how deaths in police custody are investigated in London.

The witness said the man, who he believed was the suspect he recognized on news reports, was crouched behind a car when he and another individual approached.

Hardy was first arrested around 2 p.m. Sunday at Doling Park after someone told police he was exhibiting strange behaviour and interacting with two juvenile males.

Court records show the suspect was charged in November 2002 with four counts of unlawful use of a weapon, but not arrested.

More than a century of scientific research has indicated that the majority of crime that occurs in society is committed by a small percentage of the population, which means that most criminals are repeat offenders, or "career criminals."

A 1999 study by the British Home Office, a government agency in the United Kingdom, found that 4.2\% of men - the exact same figure as for women -- had been assaulted by a partner in the previous year.

Now, with equal rights, the justice system is looking at females differently: whereas before they were excused or overlooked, now they are being apprehended.

The main difference between an unlawful assembly and a riot is that in a riot the breach of the peace is actually being committed.

Since 1970 when it was founded, the witness protection program has accepted more than 7,000 people.

The bulk of the offences which occupy the attention of the legal order today were unheard of in early English law.

The 22nd amendment to the US Constitution which limited future presidents to two elective terms was ratified in 1951.

An elderly lady told the police she had been harassed by a group of three youths.

When the police patrol walked down the main street on Saturday afternoon, while the Cup Final was being televised, there was literary nobody out of doors.

When a society undergoes some sort of upheaval, previously secret activities are exposed to view.

The evolution of criminal investigation begins in eighteenth century England, as massive changes were being unleashed.

With the new safety system users of the Internet get confirmation of who is transmitting data and whether that data is being tampered with in any way.

Under the new law electronic authentication means any technology which establishes the fact that the document or communication has not been altered.

In the survey, sheriffs and chiefs were given a list of 14 crime problems and were asked whether the problem was serious, minor, or not a problem in their jurisdiction.

Regulations define digital signatures whose genuineness has been certified by notary public officers or other public organs as legally genuine signatures.

A trail of blood suggested the woman had been killed in the sitting-room, and then the body dragged across the hall, through one bedroom and into the scullery.

Police reported that $ 10,000 had been stolen from a bank deposit.

Crime will not be effectively abated so long as criminals who have voluntarily confessed their crimes are released on mere technicalities.

The highjackers, who were being held at Harlow police station, near the airport, would face prosecution before any requests for asylum were considered.

A man was accused of a crime when no one knew if a crime had been committed.

Once a valid offer has been properly accepted, a legal agreement exists between the parties.

MODALS

Form

Modals constitute a special group of auxiliary verbs: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, need, should, must, ought, dare.

Use

Modal verbs are used before the infinitives of other verbs and mainly express degrees of certainty (probability, possibility, impossibility) or obligation, freedom to act, ability, permission, or prohibition.

N.B.! Special attention should be paid to the constructions with Perfect

Infinitives (sentences Nos. 41 50, 118 - 140)

See also the section INFINITIVE.

General

It may interest you to see the documents for yourself.

Nearly all problems can be solved by the same basic technique.

We can turn back, we can settle down where we are, or we can take a deep breath and plunge forth.

Mrs. Cage got out of bed as quickly as she could and went to the window.

Sheets of ice and thick snow must be crossed carefully.

People cannot always achieve what they want without the help of others.

Stress can improve memory because the body releases hormones that help the brain.

Memory loss should not be confused with everyday forgetfulness.

She dressed plainly because she couldnt afford to dress richly.

Far off I could see the fire of our camp and the men around it.

She must be mistaking the stranger for one of the farmers of the region.

The commander was able to rally the troops.

He eyed me silently, as though he was weighing whether I could be trusted.

A cause always has an effect, and sometimes an effect can become the cause of still another effect.

The road was closed until the bridge could be repaired.

How could she be sure she would ever see her only son again?

Our children gave us a farewell party the night before we were to leave.

A young woman from the Travel Service who was to be our guide and interpreter found us and directed to a car.

What facility transportation, water, housing - should be given the first priority after the earthquake?

Archaeologists can be compared to detectives.

The ring patterns that trees produce can help show the amount of rain that fell in a year.

Often archaeologists must work outdoors in very hot or very cold temperatures.

In certain houses along the secret escape route to freedom the slaves could hide and rest.

A van can carry several passengers and lots of equipment.

I couldnt see any town, or even distant lights, we were surrounded by utter darkness.

A good teacher should not discourage his students.

Actually my own transport will be able to take me away to exile.

Even in the darkness he could pick out the black and white skull and crossbones motif on the mans left shoulder.

We often assume that the way we do things is the best way in which they can possibly be done.

Apparently the Roman general Publius Scipio could recognize and name his entire army 35,000 men in total!

Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension, which its exposure creates, to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be cured.

Conditions of mutual trust and confidence should be developed to foster frank and open exchange of views and information.

This Association should be independent and free from domination by any one body or interest group.

An observant security manager should recognize the security and vulnerability aspects of significant business actions.

All important decisions of the government have to be approved by Parliament.

At the beginning of Saxon history in England we find a distinction between the military man and the agricultural man, a distinction which was to play an important role in the development of feudalism in England.

All the cabinet ministers must be members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, and a minister may speak only in the House of which he is a member.

The Prime Minister may dissolve Parliament and call new elections before the five year limit expires.

The President of the United States must be a native-born citizen, resident in the country for 14 years, and at least 35 years old.

Any matter within the scope of the UN Charter may be brought before the General Assembly, which may make recommendations on all issues except issues on the agenda of the Security Council.

This robbery must have happened when all the guests were out in the garden.

At the time the accident must have taken place, Gertrud was in her kitchen.

My friend, what can have prevented your writing to me?

I think Mrs. Spenlow must have forgotten about the appointment and gone out.

He must have made some betraying sound or movement, because the other man turned abruptly.

She was one of those lovely young women who should have been born into a rich family.

When she returned the necklace to Madame Forestier, that woman said frostily, You should have brought it back sooner. I might have needed it

Who could have foreseen such an accident as this?

The boy must have been very excited when he met his father for the first time.

It must have been a long and tiresome journey.

Law

I gave you reasons why three of these suspects might after all be guilty.

I need hardly say the documents have been tested by forensic experts for invisible ink.

If we know all the facts, we can fix upon the best line of defence.

Although detectives may wear ordinary clothes, most police officers wear a uniform.

Is there anyone else who can support my evidence?

Ten eyewitnesses to an automobile accident may provide very different accounts of what occurred.

Prisoners` families have to travel great distances in order to visit the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility.

Local regulations should reflect as wide a range of community interests as possible.

With your help our city can be made a safer and more pleasant place.

The police must give drug abuse and community safety the highest priority.

Drug market analysis should be an objective assessment of the nature and trend of local drug misuse.

Objectives should be clear to everybody who works in police training.

All evidence must be of the highest standard.

All operations must be capable of last minute adjustments.

The world of illicit drugs is violent and treacherous and it can have fatal consequences for the officer who is ill-equipped.

The Crown Court may also hear appeals against conviction and/or sentence for some offences which have been dealt with at the Magistrates` Court.

Before a court can decide a case, it must have jurisdiction over the parties as well as over the subject matter.

The denial of a new trial by the trial judge may be reviewed upon appeal.

By the doctrine of intervention, certain persons who are not initially part of a lawsuit may enter the suit on their own initiative.

If a group or a society is to continue, some form of social order is necessary.

We may say that two ideas underlie the concept of law: order and compulsion.

Law may be classified in various ways.

The police service has no monopoly for the enforcement of the law and a private person may bring a prosecution though this is rare in practice.

Both parties (appellant and respondent, or prosecutor and defendant) may appeal to the House of Lords.

The quorum of the court is three and the court may sit at four Divisions at the same time.

The Court of Appeal may uphold, amend, or reverse the decision of a lower court, or order a new trial.

The registrar of the county court may hear and adjudicate on certain small claims in place of the judge.

As a general rule the plaintiff must bring his claim or action in the court of the district where the defendant (or one of several defendants) dwells or carries on business.

No judicial system can stand still.

All proceedings on indictment must be brought in the Crown Court.

Formerly the verdict of a jury had to be unanimous.

The Juries Act, 1974, provides that a majority verdict may be allowed.

Sick, blind, and deaf persons may be excused from serving on a jury on compassionate grounds.

Complicated financial frauds may be incomprehensible to ordinary folk.

Jurors may be too easily impressed and swayed by advocacy of good counsel.

Local prejudice may exist, and this may be reflected in local jurors.

An applicant for legal aid must approach the local committee and show that he has reasonable grounds for his claim.

Poor persons may get free legal advice and help.

Application for legal aid should be made to the appropriate court where proceedings are to take place.

Strict law enforcement measures may be only a stop-gap strategy and may lead to still greater problems.

Drug education programs can be found in schools, churches, and youth groups and may be provided by police departments, social service agencies, hospitals, and private citizens groups.

Although death sentences must be reviewed by the Supreme Peoples court of China, the court may rule on the legality of a case in advance of the actual sentence.

Complex social organizations can only be based upon a rational law.

Acts of the British Parliament are the laws of the land and cannot be overruled by any court.

We cannot meet all the challenges of the new century unless we can break the deadly grip of crime on our communities across the country.

Although courts in some jurisdictions now allow video recordings of trials with great public interest, courts at higher levels have yet to address the question.

Modifications in the legal structure of a society can quickly and dramatically produce changes in the behaviour of entire groups.

In most jurisdictions children below the age of 7 cannot be charged even with juvenile offences, no matter how serious their actions may appear to others.

When police officers violate constitutional guarantees of due process, they may create a situation in which guilty defendants can go free.

Cases which have been dismissed for a lack of evidence cannot result in a new trial.

If the time limit for a trial is exceeded, the defendant must be set free and no trial can occur.

Guilt can only be demonstrated if the corpus delicti of a crime can be proven in court.

No criminal prosecution can be brought against someone under 10.

Criminal offences can be classified in different ways.

We can learn more about computer network abuse and misuse from the actual abusers and misusers than we can from information security experts.

The criminal process must ensure respect for privacy and autonomy, as well as freedom from physical and emotional abuse.

In all cases of accidents or illness in the streets the police are to render all assistance in their power.

After the acceptance of the necessity for a police force, there must be an acceptance by the public of the role that the police should play.

The manner in which police conduct themselves should meet with general public approval.

While many community policing programs may sound alike and at a glance may appear very similar from one large city to the next, variations do occur.

A defendant's civil liberties have to be protected and the police can not use undue pressure (such as physical brutality) in the course of investigation.

After 1268 the king did not have to be present in The Court of the King's Bench personally, and an official acted in the name of the Crown.

When a member of the public makes an emergency call to the police there may be an expectation that the police can resolve their concerns but the expectation may not be matched by any legitimate power of the police.

Only female shall be taken as witnesses when a female is searched.

In general police officers should treat all citizens equally according to the law.

Police officers should spend more time on traffic enforcement.

If other organs, apart from the General Assembly or the Security Council, are to request the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion they must be so authorized by the General Assembly.

A person who believes his or her name and character have been harmed by false statements in a publication can institute a lawsuit against the publication and seek monetary compensation for the damage.

Miranda warnings must be given whenever a suspect may be subjected to interrogation.

Anything you say can be used against you in a court of law.

Crime can be defined best as a violation of the criminal law.

Terrorists have to live somewhere, they have to store their equipment and explosives somewhere and they need vehicles to move around in.

As there are no legal restraints, the British Parliament may legislate as it pleases.

Parliament can legislate for Britain as a whole, or for any part of the country.

He who commits a tort or any other breach of law shall suffer in consequence.

Even though the state attorney may later decide not to file formal charges against a young child, the experience of an arrest can still be traumatic.

Law enforcement personnel can submit fingerprint impressions electronically to a national database.

Fingerprint impressions can be compared automatically against each other by an identification system.

In less than four seconds, a car's number plate can be scanned by camera and automatically checked against records at the Police National Computer.

DNA analysis is now so sensitive that a criminal can be identified from a single cell: a fleck of dandruff or a single sperm.

Scientists should be able to identify physical features such as eye and hair colour from DNA samples.

Police uniforms have to be weatherproof and comfortable.

Police may be issued with special protective equipment at certain times.

A shortage of manpower during the Second World War rapidly changed opinions in the police about what women could and couldn't do.

If the crime is a minor offence, it may result in a caution rather than a prosecution.

Regular officers and special constables can arrest a person who is about to commit an arrestable offence.

The bigotry of intentional racism has to be rooted out in the police service.

When somebody is arrested, they have to be made aware of their rights.

During the Second World War everyone had to carry an identity card which the police could demand to see at any time.

People can feel powerless to do anything about crime in their neighbourhood.

Graffiti, criminal damage and car crime can be very distressing and can leave a negative mark on people's enjoyment of their community.

We know that we may never again be free of the threat of terrorism.

Local officials must have up-to-date information about possible danger of terrorism.

There must be a balance between human freedom and counterterrorism.

Criminals can get the information they need to assume your identity from a variety of sources, such as the theft of your wallet, your trash, or from credit or bank information.

The sources of information about you are so numerous that you cannot prevent the theft of your identity.

New technologies for the police can bring new problems.

X-ray devices can thoroughly scan people for weapons and explosives; however, they can also reveal anatomical details that could imply invasion of privacy.

The specter of Big Brother can influence the development and use of some police surveillance technologies.

Technology cannot make up for poor judgment, compensate for inadequate or nonexistent training, substitute for poor officer selection processes, replace competent leadership, or usurp the basic skills of police officers.

The police top priorities can be met only through special research and development.

Technological advances are useful only if police agencies can afford them.

We must not forget that public safety remains the nation's number one priority.

New technologies for the police can bring new problems with them.

Through computers, police departments increasingly are able to manage and analyze vast amounts of information, deploy their resources productively, pinpoint "hot spots" of crime, and enhance efforts in community policing.

A police-citizen encounter can escalate out of control within a matter of seconds.

Of particular concern to firearms experts was whether a bullet's force through Kevlar could cause serious blunt trauma injuries.

Tests found that Kevlar could protect against 80 to 85 percent of the then available handguns.

Rubber bullets were designed so police could outdistance the rock throwers.

The baton can be used with leverage techniques as a tool for pain compliance, or as an impact weapon.

Career criminals can be combated only with a combination of prevention efforts and retributive criminal justice system policies.

According to the research findings the special police unit was able to identify, arrest, and help incarcerate career criminals.

Criminal gangs may participate in a wide range of illegal activities.

Profits from unlawful actions can prove important to the cohesion of a street gang

Anyone who violates the law should be aware of the risk he or she takes.

Miscarriages of justice can occur under any system.

All the cabinet ministers must be members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, and a minister may speak only in the House of which he is a member.

There are many reasons why the crime rate may have gone down.

The police may have investigated the attack, but decided not to prosecute

New evidence suggests that Operation Ore, Britains biggest child pornography investigation, may have prosecuted innocent men.

The Serbian Government could have arrested Ratko Mladic ten days ago, the International Court Prosecutor said.

FBI head acknowledges terrorist missile could have brought TWA jet down.

Ohio could have incarcerated 11,000 fewer inmates fully one-fourth of the average inmate population in 2003.

Top al-Qaeda terrorists may have escaped a siege by thousands of Pakistani soldiers through several secret tunnels which lead from mud fortresses to a dry river bed.

There is the evidence that the perpetrator can't have left the scene by land.

Have you been convicted in any court of a crime for which the judge could have imprisoned you for more than one year?

During the investigation the team discovers that the person wasn't alone when she died, so someone must have murdered her.

The police believe that the second victim was also killed by the same suspect, but he must have disposed of the body.

Absolutely nothing can have prevented suicide-terrorists from attacks 10 years ago anywhere with chemical or biological weapons.

She now believes her husband couldn't have received a fair hearing in front of a judge with financial interests in the company.

Luckily you weren't sitting there when the bomb exploded or you might have received serious injuries

The state court might have authorized a punishment of both life imprisonment and a $10,000 fine for respondent's offense.

You don't convict someone on whether they could have committed a crime, you convict them because you have proof that they did it!

The local police may have investigated the case, but have not made any of the results of these investigations public.

Robert argues that the first time he could have prosecuted this case to a successful conclusion was December 23, 1998.

They should have reported to the police all the cases they knew about.

After that incident the police certainly should have enforced stronger security at all airports.

The clinical audit by Richard Baker of Leicester University suggested that serial killer doctor Shipman could have been responsible for up to 300 murders.

Police suspect that someone might have murdered the football fan and thrown the body at the bus stand.

Walters who suffered in the attack could have prosecuted the group of whites with felony charges that might have put them away for years.

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