Grammar Resource Book - Посібник (Левашов О.С.)
Future perfect continuous
1. An action which will continue up until a particular event or time in the future, e.g. She will have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes*. I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.
*No future tense in time clauses
He will have been waiting for two hours when her plane finally arrives.
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time he finishes it.
By the end of October he will have been living in Warsaw for five years.
By next winter he will have been selling all his things.
By next month he will have been writing his second play.
Tomorrow I'll have been working non-stop for over three weeks.
William will have been doing his homework for two hours when we visit him.
We will have been talking about this problem for almost three hours before the meeting ends at six p.m.
By the end of this year he'll have been living here for 30 years.
At the end of this month, he'll have been working here for 10 years.
I will have been waiting here for three hours by six o'clock.
By 2005 I will have been living here for sixteen years.
By the time I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twenty years!
Next year I will have been working here for four years.
By the year 2020, linguists will have been studying and defining the Indo-European language family for more than 200 years.
By the 1st of July I shall have been teaching in this school for 10 years.
By the end of this month we shall have been learning this language for one year.
They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Tony arrives.
James will have been teaching at the University for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
Seek inspiration from colleagues in other countries, as they will have been finding solutions to similar challenges.
Your mother's solicitor will have been ascertaining the possibility of a claim for compensation.
All the police will have been looking for this man for a year by the next month and he is still at large.
The terrorists will have been keeping the hostages with no water supply and medical help for 12 hours by the time the assault squad storms the building.
With appearance of a new organization, The Assets Recovery Agency, big-time criminals from London to Belfast, Swansea to Newcastle will have been examining their financial and property portfolios very closely in the last few months.
The Home Office Personnel Department will have been collecting evidence of the probationer’s competency during the work placement.
The verb to be + past participle (the third form of a verb). Passive forms have the same tenses as active forms, though their use in Future Continuous and the group of Perfect Continuous tenses is unusual.
The subject of a sentence is not a doer (agent) of the action, but is subjected to this action. , e.g. The house was built last year. The letter will be translated by my sister.
N.B.! Passive structures can not be used with intransitive verbs. Transitive and intransitive verbs in different languages do not coincide.
Note also the use of the so-called “false passive”.
Millions of books are published every year.
The problem was solved by our specialists.
The matter will be discussed at the next meeting.
The communication line was checked.
The bridge will be built next year.
The problem is being discussed by the Directors` Board.
The letter has just been mailed.
The article will have been translated by 6 o’clock.
The contract was being discussed when I came in.
She showed me the article which had been translated by her brother.
I have always been very much attached to flowers.
Mrs. Spenlow was much impressed by his good looks.
I have always been greatly impressed and influenced by his progressive outlook.
The Olympic delegation was shown new sports facilities.
She rejected nearly everything that had been cooked for her.
I really feel Mary has been sent to us as an answer to prayer.
Deep shelves on two walls were filled with books.
In Ancient Greece the Olympic games were held under a decree of truce.
They were met and greeted by the chairman of the conference.
Associations are based on similarity, contrast, or nearness.
The woods I loved best had all been cut down the winter before.
He knows he is being taunted.
The house has been locked and deserted for two months.
The small farms were consolidated for greater efficiency.
Precious stones are often found in rock.
San Francisco was struck by an earthquake in 1906.
Many cars are being repaired and will soon be used again.
The streets are being rapidly cleaned off, and building sites are being made ready for new houses.
Artefacts are carefully collected and scientifically examined.
Ancient stone tools were strewn about the archaeological site, and corn was found in pottery vessels.
Perhaps the experience of our forefathers will provide some answers to some of the problems that we are faced with today.
Read the paragraph and think carefully about what is being described.
That’s the thing I’ve not been accused of before.
I just chatter when I am chattered to.
I have asked no questions and I have been asked none.
They saw but were not seen, as if safe behind a one-way mirror.
A terrible joke has been played upon him.
Caroline was still being talked about.
The letters had been written before that day of the accident.
A week before his wedding he was allowed a bank account for the first time in his life.
The American heritage, both legal and cultural, has been strongly influenced by Great Britain.
The Magna Carta was forced upon the king by English nobility and the upper class in 1215.
Throughout history the interplay between technology and culture has been weighed in favour of cultural norms and ideals.
William the Conqueror was faced with a formidable task when he took the throne of England.
The warriors were granted land by their chiefs as a reward for military service.
In the middle of the fifteenth century mediaeval Europe was being transformed into a relatively modern Europe.
The money for the project will be raised by contributions from universities, research foundations and governments.
Our beliefs are influenced by everything that we do.
As we grow up, we are pushed and pulled in one direction or another by our family, our teachers, and our friends.
If freedom is defined as the absence of restraint, then freedom is impossible.
We are constantly restrained and controlled by the religious and moral beliefs of society, by government rules and regulations, and by the actions of other individuals.
A dictator in ancient Rome held his position only until the crisis was solved, at which time his power was returned to the republic.
Between 1970 and 1973, Chile was ruled by a socialist government, which was headed by President Salvador Allende, but in 1973 the Allende government was overthrown by the military.
In the USSR discrimination was forbidden and everyone was granted the right to employment, education, leisure time, and support in sickness and old age.
Bismarck is considered one of the great statesmen of the nineteenth century.
In a monarchy power is peacefully passed on through inheritance.
To what extent are individual rights and freedom subordinated to the demands of the state?
Mussolini, in fact, was named after the Mexican revolutionary Benito Juarez, and his middle names were taken from two prominent Italian socialists.
The earliest settlers of Britain were bound together by the legal and sentimental ties of kinship as the moral basis of society.
The fundamental social cleavage in England, as on the continent, was formed by exploitation of peasants by landlords.
Mary’s bed had not been slept in and the front door was found ajar.
As a young child she was frequently read to by her mother.
Machinery deteriorates rapidly if it is not taken care of.
I shall be quite safe, quite well taken care of.
He could see that the bed was empty, and that it had not been slept in.
About an hour or so later I was sent for and found Mary unconscious.
I am waited for in France.
The structure of the government is frequently changed as new departments are set up.
The presidential election in the US is held every fourth (leap) year on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
Criticism of the monarchy usually is directed to its financial burden to the nation, or to the minor transgressions of subordinate members of the royal family.
During the investigation, 876 separate lines of inquiry were followed
up, 1,400 people interviewed and 330 statements taken.
Old laws are given new interpretations and applications.
The prisoner will be released tomorrow.
All the evidence will have been collected by the end of the week.
The police were interested in him when his wife was found dead.
The window was forced.
She was killed with a heavy blow from a crowbar, and the crowbar was
found on the floor beside the body.
He was beaten badly, then gagged, bound, and dragged outside, across the gravel road, and into the field where he had once been inducted as a member of the gang.
The suspect was shoved roughly into the rear seat of the police car, and taken to jail.
We were summoned here yesterday morning by a phone call from the judge's clerk.
Later that day, he was handcuffed, surrounded by the city policemen, and led to a patrol car.
The witness's testimony will be corroborated not only by fingerprint evidence but by telephone records as well.
The suspect was found by a police vehicle patrol.
The first witnesses will be called tomorrow.
A limit of three friends and/or relatives for each prisoner was allowed inside for no more than an hour.
Your objection is noted, and you are overruled.
An important lead has been studied by the prosecution attorney.
The Metropolitan Police Service is made up of up to 28,000 police officers and 18,000 civil staff.
We have been described as the world’s most famous police service.
More than 3,000 police officers were injured as a result of assaults during the year.
Pornographic material with a value of £ 2.5 million was seized by the police last year.
Specialist firearms teams were called out more than 500 times last year.
The term “law” is used in many senses.
The President of the Court of Appeal is assisted by a permanent staff.
Most actions are disposed of or settled out of court before hearing.
Circuit judges are appointed by the Lord Chancellor.
Juries are not used in magistrates` courts or juvenile courts.
The Civil Jury is not used as frequently as its criminal counterpart.
Payments in respect of jury service for travel, subsistence, and financial loss are made to jurors.
The English jury trial has been copied by other countries, e.g. the United States.
Concern has been expressed recently at the high cost of legal aid.
When a crime is reported to the police, an inquiry is made.
When two or more persons are charged with the same offence and their statements are taken separately each person is furnished with a copy of such statements.
In England and Wales the police forces are defined according to the area of responsibility.
The United Nations report on drug business has been turned over to Pakistan’s government but has not been released publicly.
Most of the Afghanistan’s opium is refined into heroin at small labs in western Pakistan.
Calls for harsh punishments for drug abuse are being heard across the country.
The Organized Crime Control Act has been extensively applied in federal drug abuse cases.
Most anti-drug enforcement efforts are focused on international airports and major harbours.
In 1998 in Peru alone, seventy-five cocaine laboratories were confiscated and 8.2 metric tons of cocaine were seized.
Decriminalisation and legalization have been proposed repeatedly as the most “radical” approach to the drug problem.
Numerous criminal enterprises are supported by the street-level demand for drugs.
Reports said that 20 people had been arrested and that education programs for drug addicts were being started.
Thirty-eight percent of offenders in China are sentenced to more than five years in prison.
The Chinese justice system is based upon a strong cultural belief in personal reformation.
Parole officers are unknown in China, but parolees are supervised by local police agencies and by citizens groups.
Islamic law is based upon four sources.
Under Islamic law, theft is censured by amputation of the thief’s right hand.
Under Islamic law, men and women are treated very differently in courts.
In 1967 the old distinction between “felonies” and “misdemeanours” was eliminated in favour of two new offence categories: “arrestable” and “nonarrestable” offences.
Expertise with a handgun or rifle has long been regarded as a sign of accomplishment among police ranks.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s the International Society for Criminology was strongly influenced by a worldwide awareness of human rights.
In 1997, global production of heroin was estimated at 500 tonnes.
As early as the Tang dynasty (618-906 A. D.) fingerprints in China were being used as personal seals on important documents.
The use of fingerprints in the identification of offenders was popularized by Sir Francis Galton and officially adopted by Scotland Yard in1901.
Suspects were fingerprinted and their prints compared with those from a crime scene.
Many criminal investigation practices have been thoroughly tested and are now accepted by most courts for the evidence that they offer.
More money has been stolen at the point of a fountain pen than at the point of a gun.
Some crimes, such as drug abuse, prostitution, gambling, and pornography, are sometimes referred to as “victimless crimes”.
The criminals` ignorance of the law was rejected as a defence at their trial, and they were convicted of murder.
Natural law was used by the early Christian church as a powerful argument in support of its interests.
The parties to a civil suit are referred to as the plaintiff and the defendant.
Murder has not been committed unless “malice” is involved.
Personal defences are based upon some characteristics of the individual who is charged with the crime.
Self-defence has been used recently in a spate of killings by wives of their abusive spouses.
Last year over 10 per cent of the major crimes in the US were accounted for by auto theft.
In most of the joyride cases the automobile is found within twenty-four hours where it has been abandoned by the thieves.
Until the 1960s, criminal justice procedures from arrest to conviction were generally not seen as an orderly process like that of a manufacturer’s production line.
Officers of the new Metropolitan Police were received with hatred and contempt.
Complaints against police officers have, since 1829, been dealt with diligently and with understanding, tact and courtesy.
Recruits to the police were given two sets of uniform, a cape and a truncheon, each of them was also issued a sabre, but this was never carried on ordinary patrols.
Members of the House of Commons are paid a salary and an allowance.
The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected by the members of the House immediately after each new Parliament is formed.
Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the Prime Minister.
The police have, over the years, been subjected to various legislative initiatives.
The general powers of the police are not always understood by members of the public when they are faced with, what is for them, a difficult situation.
Several reasons have been presented for the changes in the crime rate over time.
For nearly 200 years now, the Thames has been constantly patrolled.
The Anti-Terrorist Branch was formed because of terrorist activities in London.
A list of cases and an extensive glossary of key legal terms are included in the third edition of the book.
Each branch of the federal government has been provided with certain powers.
After the fingerprint classification system had been introduced, in the first years of its operation 1,722 people were identified through its use, three times as many as in the previous year when the Bertillion system of identification by measurement was still being used.
In 1913 the first detective training school in Britain was established.
After the siege of Sydney Street, certain police stations were given an armoury of automatic pistols.
Advocates, principally barristers, are drawn to the judiciary at the height of their careers.
An invitation to judicial appointment is rarely rejected because of the prestige and the challenge.
Federal district judges are appointed to office by the President of the United States, with the approval of the US Senate.
Concrete posts, or large decorative stones have been placed in front of government buildings for protection.
The possible consequences of the act of murder are apparently not considered by the murderer at the time of the crime.
Drug addiction, like murder, is relatively unaffected by the threat or the imposition of punishment.
All of these cases were consolidated before the judge, a former law professor at Easton whose brilliance is exceeded only by his regard for his own abilities.
Most Russian crime groups in the US are often influenced by their ethnic or regional backgrounds.
The Odessa Mafia is considered the dominant Russian crime group in the United States.
The Armenian crime groups in the US are involved in extortion, fuel frauds, credit card fraud, murder, kidnap, and narcotics trafficking.
Several members of this crime group were convicted in 1994 in Los Angeles of murder, kidnapping, and extortion.
Russian crime in California is involved in extortion, narcotics, murder, auto theft, and loan sharking, as well as insurance, fuel, telecommunication, and credit card frauds.
On September 13, 1995, 13 Russian Armenian subjects were arrested and charged with multiple acts of mail and wire fraud, money laundering, extortion, and distribution of heroin and other narcotic substances.
The fuel was obtained fraudulently and then sold at numerous independent diesel fuel stations, most of which were controlled by criminal organizations.
Up to 42 cents per gallon of the federal and state tax was pocketed by this crime group.
In some cases, jet fuel, which was purchased tax free, was added to the diesel fuel and sold by criminals at the service stations and truck stops.
Under the new law, taxes will be collected on tax-exempt fuel by the terminal operator and refunded by the state (tax refund).
On March 4, 1993, when a Russian émigré was arrested for petty theft, two kilos of cocaine and $2,200 in cash was recovered from his vehicle.
On May 4, 1995, seven kilos of heroin was seized from a member of an Armenian crime group, which is based in the Glendale area.
On September 20, 1994, the ringleader, Michael Smushkevich was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering.
Vehicles are stolen, surgically stripped, and the hulls dumped where they are easily found by law enforcement personnel.
According to a Russian newspaper, upwards of 1.5 trillion rubles (worth in excess of $1 billion) were stolen from the state in 1992 to 1993.
Once the money has been exchanged into U.S. dollars, some of the money is sent back to Russia and is invested in lucrative financial and industrial projects, real estate, enterprises, and banks.
In return for their cooperation with law enforcement, witnesses are relocated, given new identities and a new start.
The successful operation of this program by the Marshals Service is widely recognized as a unique and valuable tool in the government's war against major criminal conspiracies.
Since the inception of the witness protection program, an overall conviction rate of 89 percent has been obtained.
The early police forces in nineteenth-century America were modeled in part on the Metropolitan Police of London.
The kind of police Americans knew in the early nineteenth century was descended from the medieval police of England.
A National Identification Bureau was finally created at the turn of the century,
A Hispanic gang in Long Beach, California has been involved in a gang war since October 1989 with a Cambodian gang also from Long Beach.
Gang attire is displayed everywhere as the chic fashion statement for young people, it is shown all over MTV and other teen videos.
Across the country prisons are jammed to capacity and, in extreme cases, barges and mobile homes are used.
Virtually every basic practice of probation in America was conceived by Augustus in 1841.
On November 29, 1933, during the FBI's search for Miller, his body was found in a ditch on the outskirts of Detroit, Michigan.
In 1855 Chicago was divided into three police precincts, with a station house in each precinct.
With the establishment of the Scientific Crime Laboratory in August of 1938, a scientific approach to crime detection was officially sanctioned.
When the Traffic Division was reorganized in 1948, the forty-one horses in the police stables were auctioned off.
The first auto patrol was specially built for the Chicago police department and was officially put into use in March of 1906.
Calls to the department were received at and dispatched to patrol cars from police headquarters.
Between dusk on July 21, and dawn, July 22, four women were murdered on the streets of Moscow.
Seven of the ten victims were found in the northern section of the city.
Some victims were tortured and sexually assaulted, one victim was strangled, and one was strangled and bludgeoned.
The victim’s body was discovered an hour later, she had been gagged with a piece of her shirt, sexually assaulted, beaten, and strangled.
Nearly 9,000 hate crimes were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1999.
Victims will be offered crime prevention advice and the help of the victim support service.
All information is collated, analyzed, and disseminated, when appropriate, to various units within the Police Department and other law enforcement agencies.
The majority of shootings and murders in and around the area of Brent were being perpetrated by black criminals or members of the black communities.
It is reported that both victims were illegally detained and tortured and further prosecuted on false charges.
Six persons who were detained are being interrogated at this time.
The bodies of the victims were found in the trunk of their car.
The killers were passed on to the American Military Police.
In Florida, almost 494,000 handgun licenses will have been granted by 2009.
Each evidence article was accompanied by a photo.
You have been tried by a jury of your peers and found not guilty.
Auckland Electronic Crime Lab staff have been involved in every homicide investigation in the region for the past two-and-a-half years.
The potential dangers of Internet scams and theft of credit card numbers have been well publicized.
A significant amount of crimes is simply not reported, and some are even not detected.
By 1997 all frontline Met officers had been issued with modern protective equipment.
Barret Robbins, a former player with the Oakland Raiders, was shot several times Saturday night during an altercation with police at a South Beach office; he was rushed to Ryder Trauma Center at Jackson Memorial Hospital in critical condition.
Nowadays, children as young as 6 or 7 are carted off in handcuffs, locked up and saddled with permanent criminal records.
The 8-year-old was referred to the state attorney's office for prosecution on a charge of possession of a weapon on school grounds, a felony.
The scarcity of police resources has often been remarked on.
Too little attention has been paid to the plights of children with parents in prison.
The victim’s car was found just a few blocks from the Niles bar where he was last seen.
The DNA profiles (DNA 'fingerprints') are derived from samples of human tissue.
Samples of tissue are taken compulsorily from individuals who are suspected of involvement in “a recordable offence” and also from volunteers as part of the investigation of a crime.
In 1890, telephones were installed in Scotland Yard - but only for use inside the building!
Cars, now such an important part of police work, were not introduced to the police force until 1918.
Now a new computer system of identification by fingerprints is being introduced.
In 1934, a police laboratory was established at Hendon next to the Police College.
Automatic Number Plate Recognition system has now been developed for more general use with dramatic results.
In the first three months of use of the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system, 1,045 cars were either tracked or stopped in connection with a wide range of crimes, from terrorism to theft.
The International Division of the National Criminal Intelligence Service is linked to anti-drugs networks in other countries and to Interpol.
Interpol, the International Criminal Police Commission, was first launched in 1914 in Monaco; in 1946, its constitution was changed and its headquarters moved from Vienna to Paris.
Interpol records are kept on thousands of top criminals; here information is collated and dispatched across the world.
The police service in Great Britain was reviewed in 1993.
An airship, on loan from the Air Ministry, was first used by the police in 1921 at the famous Derby horse race at Ascot.
Thousands of Neighbourhood Watch groups have been established across the country since the scheme was introduced in 1983.
The first Crimestoppers scheme was introduced in 1976 after a brutal murder in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Women were first accepted into the police force during the First World War (1914-1918).
All magistrates are appointed by the Lord Chancellor.
Each year, about 1,200 child passengers are killed or seriously injured in car accidents.
When somebody is found guilty of an offence, they will usually be sentenced.
Capital punishment was abolished in the United Kingdom in 1969.
It is thought that during two hundred years more than 50,000 people were hanged on the Tyburn Tree scaffold in London.
The detective branch of the Metropolitan Police in London was founded in 1842 and it was first stationed in a house at the back of a small square – the Scotland Yard.
Through the years, the design of police truncheons has been modified.
People's lives are blighted by the crime in their neighbourhood.
Sentences by the new courts will be geared towards local crime priorities.
The Galton-Henry system of fingerprint classification, was published in June 1900, and officially introduced at Scotland Yard in 1901.
Many police technologies are drawn and adapted from the commercial marketplace.
After at least five tons of cocaine had been seized by Spanish drug officers on a ship off the Canary Islands, twenty people of different nationalities were arrested on board of the vessel.
Radar was introduced to traffic law enforcement in the late 1940s.
When DNA analysis was first used in courts, available statistics were based on a small sample of the population.
Approximately two million fines are issued each year in the USA.
A suspect is being questioned at the moment by the police officers at the scene of the crime.
Special police units are being formed these days in Germany for infiltration into neo-Nazi groups.
New officers have been reassigned to the case, and several potential witnesses have been reintroduced.
Three men have been machine-gunned recently in a residential area in London.
So far five people have been arrested in connection with the rape case.
The assault weapon has not been recovered yet.
Legislation is adopted in the House of Commons, considered by the House of Lords, and given royal assent by the sovereign.
The Industrial Relations Act 1971, was never implemented effectively, and consequently was repealed in 1974.
The House of Lords has been criticized by the public and challenged by the House of Commons.
The Prime Minister is not elected directly by the public.
The life of Parliament is divided into sessions.
Ordinary courts in England most generally are classified as superior or inferior.
The English court system has been altered in part by participation in the European Union, and the European Convention on Human Rights.
The magistrates were compensated in the earlier years, but the remuneration has been abolished.
Small towns and rural areas are characterized as homogenous with low levels of cultural diversity, less frequent crime, and physical isolation.
Between 1980 and 1990, five per cent of the increase in the rural population was accounted for by an influx of prison inmates as most prisons are located in rural areas.
A remarkable feature of the English legal system is that an important part of the law has never been considered, debated or approved by any Parliament.
The United Nations was founded in San Francisco 26 June 1945, when the UN Charter was drawn up by the representatives of 50 countries and officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified.
United Nations peace-keepers in some current missions will be exposed to hostile, dangerous and war-like circumstances.
The maximum life of Parliament has been prolonged by legislation in rare circumstances such as the two world wars.
In 1922 twenty women were sworn in as police constables with powers of arrest.
Small-scale environmental offences are frequently committed (sometimes unknowingly) by individual citizens.
All four police databases have been consolidated into one major network, and average report times have been cut from 35 to 40 minutes to ten minutes.
The subject is placed face down on the ground and handcuffed, his feet are drawn up, toward his hands, and with a tie or belt secured so that his feet are positioned near his hands; the prisoner is then placed in the backseat of a patrol car for transport.
In the cases of fatal police shootings officers are automatically removed from operational firearms during the investigation.
Hardy, 24, was charged with first-degree assault on a law enforcement officer, two counts of second-degree assault on an officer and three counts of unlawful use of a weapon after a Sunday afternoon fight with police.
If a woman is involved in a crime, she's generally considered an accomplice to a man.
The European human rights convention will be incorporated into the British law next autumn.
A wrongful mental state, mens rea, is required in almost all serious crimes.
Very young judges are not encountered in England.
The vehicle is hidden for a few days, possibly fitted with false plates, used for a robbery or similar offence and normally abandoned immediately afterwards.