Grammar Resource Book - Посібник (Левашов О.С.)

Past perfect

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I had met

Had I met?

I had not met

We had met

Had we met?

We had not met

You had met

Had you met?

You had not met

He/she/it had met

Had he/she/it met?

He/she/it had not met

They had met

Had they met?

They had not met

Use

1. Completed action before another action or a specific time in the past, e.g. When he had saved enough money, he bought a new computer. You failed at the exam, because you hadn’t studied hard.

General

He learned that she had sold her business at a handsome price.

He faced a tall, pale woman who had entered so quietly that he had not heard her.

Until she spoke he had not realised that she was not English.

The room that had seemed so strange the first night was familiar now.

A few months before I was born, my father had left our home and travelled over the sea.

Thousands of years before Europeans arrived in the Americas, Native American civilizations had flourished, and some had already faded into the distant past.

Mrs. Hamilton’s grandfather was a black American who had escaped from slavery and had come to Ohio.

He seemed to us a wise man who had been everywhere.

We did not talk about the farm in Virginia, which had been her home for so many years.

My grandfather’s teeth were white and regular – so sound that he had never been to a dentist in his life.

By the sixth century, the Roman Empire had declined substantially in size and influence and was near the end of its life.

By 597 Ethelbert, the king of the Kentians, had married a Christian woman and had accepted Christianity himself.

After all political opponents had totally disappeared from public life, after elections had “proved” that 98 per cent of the people favoured Hitler – why did the Nazis still keep up concentration camps?

He wondered what she had told them.

No food had arrived by twelve forty-five.

By the time the train reached the station Jennifer had solved all the crossword puzzles in her newspaper.

Trumann wasn't sure where her husband had gone.

Her voice was stronger and the tears had stopped.

It was a union he had organized and represented.

Mark explained to Dianne that he had gone for a walk.

Jake smiled at the story he had heard a hundred times.

Gronke was in Memphis because his boss had called him.

She had worked late down at the office and was driving home.

She said he had struck her twice on the ankle with the bat, and twice in the face with his fist.

The salesman at the store said she had come and gone an hour earlier.

Buckley asked him if he had written any articles in his field.

It was a brief service, just as he had asked for in his note.

The regulars of the bar eyed the strangers who had invaded their sanctuary.

The thought had kept him at the office until three in the morning.

It was apparent they had discussed everything in the world but money.

Sam had told him from the beginning that Mississippi wanted an execution.

The agents who'd escorted them had slipped into the shadows of the hangar.

I assured him there had been no further contact since the initial meeting.

He had flinched, and his eyes had narrowed too quickly before he answered.

Four days ago you thought McDeere had copied some of Avery's secret files.

They had already passed the gate when the sentry stopped them.

The bus left Kentucky thirty minutes earlier, and by now he was sure something had gone wrong.

She introduced herself and informed him she had been with the firm for thirty-one years.

He missed his Volkswagen because it had been his first new car, a gift at high school graduation.

People said you had a real strange case that some lawyers in your firm had died under suspicious circumstances.

His client was an old man who had founded and built a chain of do-it-yourself hardware stores and at one point had been worth eighteen million before his son and a renegade board of directors took control and forced him into retirement.

The Thirty Years War had started in 1618 for religious reasons, namely the struggle between Catholic and Protestant countries, but it soon turned into an all out struggle for military and political hegemony in Europe.

Fink had spent many hours in courtrooms during the past twenty years, and took great pride in his trial skills.

Adam waited in his office, which had become the operations centre during the past twenty-four hours.

The man was squatting behind an old Volkswagen Beetle with the hood up as if engine trouble had stopped him.

Memphis had seen two white Christmases in the past ninety years, and the experts predicted no more in the century.

He had planned the trip for years, but his doctor intervened at the last moment.

By the end of the last month the workers and the employers had finally resolved their dispute.

By contemporary standards, William the Conqueror had conquered an anarchy whose salient characteristic was a pluralistic value system.

Even before their invasion of Britain the Teutonic tribes had developed the comitatus, a military leader and his followers.

Law

The suspect confessed that he had committed the offence.

The teenager identified the man who had raped her.

A 1995 study by the Department of Health of 1,100 drug misusers found that 664 of them had committed no less than 70,000 separate crimes before treatment began.

The researcher found that many of the victims had actually triggered the incident that led to the homicide, by bodily movement, use of force, or verbal abuse.

The judge gave his full support to the way the inquiry team had handled the situation in regard to the witnesses.

As soon as the police arrived at the house they knew there had been a break-in.

On closer examination the police believed the burglar had got into the house via a small top window in the bedroom.

At its height, classical Roman law constituted a body of practical wisdom of a kind the world had not seen before.

Police obtained information from a variety of organizations that had suffered from computer theft.

A resident security guard who saw that the burglars had smashed the office window with a sledgehammer chased the offenders.

The attorney had argued that the prosecution had no physical evidence.

 The attorney said the prosecutors relied on three informants all of whom had cut deals with authorities.

By 1957 the number of states that had abolished capital punishment had risen to eight, and by 1965 there were thirteen states that had formally abolished capital punishment.

The Charter of the United Nations came into force on October 24, 1945 after the five great powers and the majority of the other founder-states had ratified it.

Dr. Simpson, the pathologist, carried out a post-mortem and found the victim had died of suffocation.

The police put out a general arrest order for Capone, but by the time they found him all of the eyewitnesses had suffered an attack of lost memory.

By 1924, Al Capone had established himself in control of the respectable Chicago suburbs.

The police department chief reported that the forensic section had moved to new premises.

The victim didn’t recognize the attackers because she had not seen them before.

The duty officer explained to us that the police had already started the investigation.

The detectives arrived at the scene of a fire which had completely destroyed the McKelvie’s home in Gilchrist Avenue, Corby, on February 10, 2002.

When detectives first arrived at the scene they were unaware of the brutal murder which had taken place.

Scenes of crime officers had conducted a methodical four-day scene investigation before they found some vital clues.

 A number of cases in London recently all involved members of youth gangs who had apparently modeled themselves on the Chinese Triads.

The arrest was peaceful, but the suspect complained the police officers had made a mistake.

The waiter said that Morrison had collected from him a long brown paper parcel and it had felt like a bar of iron.

Another witness claimed that he had seen the suspect with a pistol.

A third cab driver said he had picked up the accused and another man at 3.30 a.m. at Kensington Church and driven them to Aldgate.

A railway clerk identified Morrison as the man who had deposited his luggage under a false name at eleven o’clock on the morning of New Year’s Day.

Morrison had pawned a watch and chain two days before Christmas yet had 224 pounds on him when the police arrested him.

The police surgeon who had inspected the remains of the victim’s body gave evidence in court.

The Scotland Yard detectives discovered that the suspect had already served three prison terms for housebreaking and robbery.

Some months before his wife had died Armstrong had drawn up a new will for her in which she left him everything she possessed.

Emily’s banking account showed that in the two months before her murder she had drawn most of her money and given it to her husband.

At least 100 inmates escaped from jail through a tunnel they had dug to a water drain on a street.

On April 21, 1994 CIA Director R. James Woolsey raised concern that crime syndicates had possibly obtained and smuggled Russian nuclear weapons to terrorists or foreign agents.

The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service expressed fears that under the guise of Jewish emigration in the 1970s and 1980s the KGB had also emptied their prisons of hard-core criminals.

 According to criminologist Arkady Bronnikov, who has studied tattoos of Russian prisoners for 30 years, inmates wore tattoos only after they had committed a crime.

New York population had grown to over a half million people before it got a permanent police in 1853.

In 1980s nonalcoholic drugs troubled the society and the police as much as alcohol enforcement had a half-century earlier.

By January, 1993, we had identified about 40 street gangs in Pulaski County with 800 - 1000 members.

In 1983, African American Los Angeles gangs seized upon the availability of narcotics, particularly crack, as a means of income after crack had supplemented cocaine as the most popular illicit drug of choice.

By 1956, all states had adopted adult and juvenile probation laws.

Evidence indicated that Nash, a former Federal prisoner himself, had assisted in the escape of seven prisoners from the U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth on December 11, 1931.

On July 11, not far from where police had discovered the first victim, they found the nearly nude body of Elena Tolokonnikova, 32, a teacher, who had been out with friends the previous evening.

A source in the interior department noted that rebels had entered the village late at night.

By the turn of the twentieth century drug abuse, principally addiction to opiates had become widespread.

By 1975, the Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory had completed performance standards for handcuffs, riot helmets, crash helmets, police body armor, ballistic shields, and hearing protectors.

The prosecution’s next witness was a fingerprint man from Washington who told the jurors what they had known for weeks.

Ninety per cent of US companies said they had detected computer security breaches.

According to a survey 42 per cent of the British police felt their lives had been in serious danger as a result of personal threat in the previous years.

A suspect told the police that four men had stopped his van, robbed him of his money and stolen some of the load.

One of the witnesses later recalled hat the cop had fired three times, first two in the air and the third one in the tire.

Two eyewitnesses reported that the police officer had shot the drug dealer without provocation.

The occupant of the house reported to the police that two intruders had burgled into her house.

The witnesses noticed that the suspects had fled the area.

The jury found that the company had acted with malice and oppression towards ten of the plaintiffs.

Before his release from prison four months ago the burglar had carried out up to 4,000 burglaries over a four-year period.

After his arrest the murderer boasted that he had killed eight other people and disposed of their corpses in drums of acid.

After the judge had instructed the jury the trial proper began.

Donald Marshall spent over 11 years in penitentiary for a crime he had not committed.

The appeal stated that the court had denied the defence an access to the full transcript of the evidence of the trial.

The officers arrested the suspect without warrant because they had reasonable and probable grounds that he had committed an offence.

 The federal government alleged the Holy Land Foundation had funded militant and terrorist groups in the Middle East.

 Congressional investigators said the government had compiled significant information on two suspects before the September, 11 attacks.

 Most police incidents had evidenced themselves in one form or another before they actually happened.

The woman told the police she had hurt herself by accident.

The State had a reasonable belief that the defendant had committed a crime.

Police launched a nationwide hunt for the man who had carried out at least three other assaults.

The police informed the reporters that the number of crimes had decreased.

The jury found beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant had deliberately killed her child.

A report by the European Commission’s anti-fraud unit said that the EU had lost a billion dollars in the previous year due to crime and corruption.

The prosecution proved that the rape victim had not given her ‘voluntary and genuine agreement’

The young mother told the court that she had stolen the food from a supermarket for her children.

A witness told the police about the odd guy, who had briefly rented a room in their house in early 1996.

 The Home Secretary claimed that the police had reduced their stop-and-search activities for ethnic minority groups.

During the three-day trial the accused admitted responsibility for everything, even for crimes he had not personally committed.

 The arrests only came to light on Saturday night, six days after the accused had made their first appearances in court.

After an intricate three-year undercover effort the Operation Casablanca had jailed more than 160 people from 6 countries and from more than half a dozen banks in Mexico and Venezuela, most of them respectable mid-level financial institutions.

The Supreme Court acquitted the two men who had been in jail for 10 years now after the Mongu High Court had convicted and sentenced them to death.