Grammar Resource Book - Посібник (Левашов О.С.)

Present perfect

Form

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I have found

Have I found?

I have not found

We have found

Have we found?

We have not found

You have found

Have you found?

You have not found

He/she/it has found

Has he/she/it found?

He/she/it has not found

They have found

Have they found?

They have not found

Use

1. An action (repeated actions) that happened at an indefinite time in the past, e.g. She has found a new job. I’ve seen this show many times

2. Events that have happened in a time period that is not finished, e.g. He’s not attended classes today. She has entered the University this year.

3. Something that started in the past and has continued up till now (non-action verbs), e. g. They have been in France for six weeks.

General

You have not finished your work.

Have you ever seen a sea-storm?

How long have you been to London?

I have failed at my driving test.

I have run out of money.

Have you missed any classes today?

She hasn’t done her housework.

Have you made any reports at the seminars this term?

How many films have you seen this month?

Who has seen my camera?

Have you ever been to a exotic place?

I have seen this man somewhere.

She’s never apologised for anything in her life.

They have bought a new TV.

I haven’t seen him since June.

Have you finished your work yet?

I have told you everything that I know.

Has she moved to her new house yet?

She has won the first prize in the competition.

I am sorry I have been rude to you.

We are sorry you have caught such a terrible cold.

It’s a pity you have lost your key.

Have you passed your exams this year?

It’s a pity he has broken his leg.

I have seen the house where Shakespeare was born.

I’m not hungry. I’ve just had a lunch.

Have you ever been late for the train?

We have already settled the matter.

I have knocked three times, but there is no answer.

You have always been very kind to me.

I have already looked through all the articles, but I haven’t found anything interesting in this newspaper.

It was my grandmother's, ring, I have not worn it for many years.

Nobody in the village has ever had any idea that old Dr. Rosen’s death was anything but an accident

I really feel we have been most fortunate.

She has written, produced, directed, and starred in a number of plays, movies, and television productions.

Among her many accomplishments Ms. Angelou has produced a ten-part TV series on African traditions in American life.

Rosemary Sutcliff is an English authour who has written many historical novels for both adults and children.

Psychologists have divided memory into two types – short-term memory and long-term memory.

Have you ever returned to a place which you once visited or lived in?

Little by little archaeologists, scientists, and mathematicians have learned the great secrets of the Maya.

The impact of technological change on all areas of human life has been dramatic.

The automobile and the airplane have made the world a smaller place.

Radio and television have transformed the planet into a “global village”.

The film “Titanic” is not worth the money they have spent on it.

Scotland has not always been a part of the United Kingdom.

Astronomers have found the most Earthlike extra-solar planet.

 The recent presidential decree has protected two million hectares of the Amazon jungles.

 There has been so much demand for fur that some furriers have already sold out of stock, weeks before Christmas.

English has acquired the largest vocabulary of all the world's languages, perhaps as many as two million words, and has generated one of the noblest bodies of literature in the annals of the human race.

Advances in communications and commerce, transportation, and industrial technology have turned separate nations and regions into a global village.

Law

Crime has increased since the Second World War.

A quarter of schoolchildren in Great Britain say they have committed some kind of crime.

The advent of the Welfare State has not, alas, resulted in a reduction in crime.

Officials in the state of Minnesota have attributed at least 75\% of major crimes in that state over the past few years to drug abuse.

The customs agents have played the most visible role in the interdiction efforts over the last few decades.

Some international efforts in drug control have been successful.

The results of drug prohibition have been meagre at best, while the costs have been almost intolerable.

Official parole eligibility comes only after the offender has shown repentance and performed “meritoriously” while in prison.

The police of Britain have not been immune to charges of corruption and brutality.

The proportion of Britain’s population in prisons has markedly increased over the last decade.

The volume of illicit drugs has increased dramatically - heroin and cocaine seizures by as much as 500\% over the past decade; street prices have nevertheless declined and purity levels increased.

The number of opiate and cocaine addicts in the UK has doubled over the past five years, and the use of heroin and a variety of synthetic drugs has grown sharply among young people.

Follow-up surveys have shown that the UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners have had a considerable influence upon national legislation throughout the world.

American support of and participation in INTERPOL has increased substantially since 1980.

The world traffic in illegal drugs has become a major focus of Interpol’s efforts.

To date, courts in 49 states have admitted DNA evidence in 817 trials and hearings.

Field test kits for drug analysis and chemical sobriety checkers have made the transition from high-technology to wide use.

Most states have developed their own computer crime laws.

Computer experts have recently warned of a very real potential for international terrorism through computer subterfuge.

Old concepts of criminality, and of white-collar crime in particular, have undergone significant revision as a result of new technologies.

The American legal system has generally recognized two broad categories of defences: personal and special.

The history of the insanity defence has been rife with change, contradiction, and uncertainty.

The insanity defence today is not an “easy way out” of criminal prosecution, as some have assumed.

The most recent historical source of modern law has been English “common law”.

The content of the legal system has changed through the death of many laws which at one time occupied a central place in the legal order.

A child is someone who has not reached his 14th birthday.

Some pickpockets simply seek out people who have left themselves vulnerable.

Although many agencies have received some introductory community policing training, there remains a need for instruction beyond this level.

Much of the content and most certainly the focus of the legal norms have under­gone dramatic shifts over the centuries; but the reliance on coercion through force, the use of judges, the differentiation of functions between the judiciary and the legislature, and the use of peers (juries) have remained firm features of the legal order.

The juvenile-court movement has resulted in the virtual withdrawal of

the tradi­tional legal processing of juveniles after arrest.

Despite the fact that objective and systematic investigation of the drug problem has clearly indicated that these laws have little or no positive effect on the drug problem the influence of the police agencies has been sufficiently great so that the laws have steadily increased in harshness over the years.

There have been occasions when a major police inquiry has crucially depended on help from informants.

In the United States, politicians and academic critics have brought about reform on such issues as police abuse of power, discriminatory treatment of minority group offenders, and inhumane prison conditions.

The American murder rate has always been high.

Stranger homicide – a killing in which killer and victim have had no previous contact – remains significantly less frequent than intra-family and friend homicide.

While most laws in our penal codes have retained their original form, the law on forcible rape has changed drastically in many states.

The amount and types of fraud have changed through the years with technological developments.

Since ancient times scholars have speculated about the causes of crime and the possible remedies.

Large punitive damage awards have for years been a source of great concern for business.

The development of English civil procedure, particularly since the 16th century, has constituted a process of continual refinement.

Women and racial minorities have received judicial appointments in embarrassingly small numbers.

The Crime Prevention and Partnership Approach Working Group has consisted of representatives of all areas.

The US Congress has divided the country into 94 federal judicial districts.

In recent years, in the US the annual number of state court cases has been well over 27 million.

The market for stolen computers and components has become a very real problem.

The question of the deterrent influence of capital punishment has occupied the forefront in criminological research for years.

Observations and researches have demonstrated the fact that despite trends away from the use of capital punishment the murder rates have remained constant.

Within the United States where one state has abolished capital punishment and another has not, the murder rate is no higher in the abolition state than in the death-penalty state.

There has been a very clear tendency throughout the Western world towards elimination of capital punishment.

In the United States the trend away from the use of capital punishment has taken several forms.

There has been a rapid decline in the number of states where capital punishment is mandatory for some crimes

There has been a steady increase in the number of states that have abolished capital punishment for various crimes.

The conclusion that the murder rate has not gone up emerges when we compare the rate in states that have retained the death penalty with those in states that have abolished it.

The states that have abolished the death penalty do not show an increase in the murder rate.

The Federal Narcotics Bureau has increased its efforts at control, and the formal sanctions against drug-users have drastically increased in severity.

The legislative role of the House of Commons has diminished.

Public participation by approval or disapproval of actions of the House of Commons in the past few decades has to a degree limited the power of Commons.

Little change in the composition of the House of Lords has occurred over the centuries.

Many small-town and rural police steadfastly insist that community policing is what they have always done.

Although adolescent crime is primarily an urban problem, suburban and rural communities have never been immune to delinquency.

Juvenile crime in many rural areas has become a major problem for local law enforcement agencies.

The United States court system has varied a great deal throughout the history of the country.

A number of factors, such as developments in vehicle safety standards and improvements in infrastructure, have contributed to the long-term decline in casualty rates.

The most significant recent reduction of traffic casualties has come from the compulsory wearing of seat belts for front-seat passengers of cars and light vans.

A web of corruption, degradation, vicious police practice, and secondary crime has developed around the use of narcotics in America.

 U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno has named Russian crime groups in the United States a priority target for the U.S. Department of Justice.

Although Russian authorities have currently identified over 5,000 criminal groups in that country, only approximately 300 of those have some identifiable structure.

Knowledgeable sources within the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) have provided one model of the structure of criminal groups in Russia.

It is quite possible that the old style structure of criminal groups in Russia has changed.

Russian crime groups in the United States and Russia have formed alliances with the La Cosa Nostra, the Colombian cocaine cartels, and the Sicilian Mafia.

According to law enforcement sources, drug trafficking has not yet become a major focus for Russian crime groups in the United States.

There is no doubt that the federal Witness Security Program has helped in the fight against crime.

Since 1970 the witness protection program has accepted more than 6,800 people.

American police have always been a part of local government.

Actually we have been aware of the gang problem and to a lesser extent, the causes and perhaps even the solutions for quite some time.

From the 1920s to the present day, gang activity has not only increased and intensified, it has done so with notoriously senseless crime and violence.

Gang-like activity has actually plagued large cities around the nation for years.

Gangs in one form or another have been around for hundreds of years.

Some gang members have migrated to other cities from Los Angeles, and also youths from other cities have copied Los Angeles gang culture.

The gangs' arsenals have expanded to large-caliber handguns, shotguns, and automatic weapons.

Hispanic gangs in the Los Angeles area have attacked both on and off-duty police officers.

The high level of mobility and violence of the Asian gangs has made them a national crime problem.

There is some evidence that a few of the Skinheads gangs have developed an internal gang structure; some have printed and distributed membership applications, collected dues, established rules and regulations, and conducted meetings with formal minutes.

Throughout the years probation agencies have struggled with the lack of resources.

The discovery and development of new methods of communication have contributed significantly to the changes within the police department over the years.

Police in Auckland and Henderson have launched a homicide investigation after the discovery of 23 year old Marie Sarah Jamieson's body at the back of a factory in Mihini Road, on 19 February 2004.

It is through joint investigations and the exchange of intelligence data that we have developed criminal cases against individuals and made seizures of property.

The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has received information of two more cases of police torture in Sri Lanka.

The proliferation of technology has certainly brought investigative challenges.

Over two centuries, routine acts of bravery by Met officers have led to hundreds of commendations, serious injuries and loss of life.

The electronic environment has created huge opportunities for the advancement of business, society and individuals; and for exploitation by criminals.

In recent years, however, the pendulum has swung back, and the juvenile justice system has in many ways become more punitive.

In recent decades, the Florida Legislature has toughened its juvenile justice laws.

The female prison population has exploded in the past two decades.

The computer revolution has had a huge impact on the police.

In the first three months of use, the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system has led to 47 arrests.

After introduction of the new identification system crime in the City of London has dropped by 30\%.

Racism has long been an issue under the spotlight, particularly since the tragic death of London teenager Stephen Lawrence on April 22nd 1993.

The workload crime imposes on the police has increased fivefold since 1960, but their resources have not kept pace with their workload.

Progress in technology for the police has often been slow and uneven.

The scientific and technological revolution that has so radically changed most of American society during the past few decades has had surprisingly little impact on the criminal justice system.

Recent incidents in all parts of the nation have pointed to the need for more options on the use-of-force continuum.

Violence by women has skyrocketed in the latter part of this century.

The increase in female violence over the past century has been dramatic.

According to police, the price of contract killings has fallen from thousands of dollars to as little as $200.

Violent crimes have more than doubled in the past few years.

The Prime-Minister has demanded tough laws on illegal immigration.

John Bush has had more than 50 criminal convictions since the age of 16 and has spent half of his life in prison.

The jury has reached a unanimous decision.

The witness is unreliable as he has changed his story several times so far.

The suspect has denied the charges so far and protested against the police actions.

One of the neighbours has already called the cops.

The defendant has hired a new lawyer and filed a motion for a continuance.

Your Honour, the defendant has obstructed the investigation into this matter.

The secret service has tapped our phones and wired our house this week.

You've testified forty-six times, and forty-six times it has been your opinion the defendant was not legally insane.

We are certain that the FBI has bugged every phone in our offices.

The agent in charge of the investigation is of opinion that these two suspects have fled the area.

The police chief has told me that he's discussed the witness protection program with you.

Some of the most unethical people I've met have been my own clients.

He's been here less than a year and has already become a good lawyer.

Studies have shown that only about one in five people trusts the police.

The crowd has thinned, and the police have spotted two casualties on the other side of the street.

Al-Qaeda in particular has created a complex and diffuse network of covert operatives that blend into immigrant communities in Western nations.

The Task Force 14 has reviewed procedures for simultaneous building evacuation, practiced a mass evacuation of a fifty-story tower, and determined the best escape routes from buildings.